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Application of IoT in Healthcare and Manufacturing

Question:

Discuss about the Application of IoT in Healthcare and Manufacturing.

Answer:

Introduction

There is a small organization in Melbourne that has an interest in the application of IoT devices in the different fields. They are doing research on the IoT devices and analyzing the current market trend in which field the IoT devices are used mostly (Golovatchev et al., 2016). The evolution of the technology in Internet of things is the main aim of the organization. The organization focuses on the development of new IoT technologies that could help to increase their growth in the business and gain profit from this technology (Corcoran, 2014). There are many security issues associated with the IoT devices and the organization have the requirement to fix all the risks before launching their product in the market.

The report is made to analyze the two application of the IoT that are used extensively in the present time and the organization can develop it in the next five years. Analysis is done on the potential condition of the organization and the opportunities that are available for the customer. The advantages and disadvantages of the IoT devices are discussed in the report and the ethical and social issues associated with the report are also discussed. The impact of the use of the IoT devices in the organization and recommendations are given in the report regarding the application of IoT devices in different fields. The manager of the organization faces problem in the selection of the right IoT application for the growth in the business. The technology is changing rapidly and it is the responsibility of the manager to select the right application that would be help the organization to gain profit for at least tenure of five years.  

The report structures the definition of IoT devices and its usage in the different type of application. The application of IoT devices are also discussed and at last recommendation is provided that would help the manager and the other stakeholders to gain knowledge from the report.

Definition of the IoT

Internet of things or IoT is the small devices that have a wide range of application. The IoT devices are not like traditional computer devices they are much smaller in size and vary in their shapes and size (Childs, 2013). The IoT devices are used in mobiles, laptops, automobiles, security devices, etc. the devices are interconnected with each other via the internet and one or more IoT devices can be used to form a single device. Some of the examples of IoT devices are as follows:

  • Use in automatic lighting
  • Thermostats
  • Maintaining commercial or household environment
  • Security systems, etc.

Future of IoT Devices

The IoT devices are connected with the internet and they can communicate with each other. The IoT devices can be used in billions of devices and it has been found that there would be an increase in the use of the device in future and the devices would be capable to automate the systems (Fortino & Trunfio, 2014). 

The devices can be used in the parking or control the lighting condition of the city and used to build a smart city (Ji et al., 2014). It can also be applied in the healthcare industry and analyze the health condition of the patient remotely. IoT finds its application in the manufacturing industry to automate the manufacturing of the products and thus reducing the manufacturing defect eliminating the human errors (Leminen et al., 2014).

Two Potentials Application of IoT by the Organization

Application in Health Care Industry

The healthcare industry is evolving at a rapid rate and before the invention of IoT devices research was done on the industry to gather data of the patients remotely. The improvement of the health service for the patient was the main target of the health care industry (Chiuchisan, Costin & Geman, 2014). The invention of the IoT devices has made the process easy; now the patients can be monitored remotely and contacted from any location in the world. There are lots of scopes of improvement in the health care industry and this can be done with the implementation of IoT devices in the system.

  1. The application of the IoT devices in the health care industry reduces the errors that can be caused due to mistake of an individual (Gupta et al., 2016).
  2. It can also track the location of the patient using the BLE devices that are capable to track the assets of the hospital and the patient at a minimal cost.
  3. The data or information of the patients is gathered through different devices that can analyze the health condition of the patient and send the data to the doctors for further analysis (Jog, Sharma & Mhatre, 2015).
  4. The IoT devices can also be used to track the patient if they are taking the prescribed medicine or not. E.g: Ingestible developed by Proteus digital health.
  5. Hearing aids can also be developed with multiple functions like acting it as a headphone, jewellery or fitness device (Mohammed et al., 2014).
  6. Devices that can change the mood of an individual can also be manufactured with the application of IoT devices. This can be done by passing current of low intensity to the brain and resulting in elevating the mood and the performance of the brain.

The IoT devices can also automate the process and reduce the paper works required to maintain the history of the patient. The records of the patient are kept in the charts of the healthcare (Lal, Palaniappa & Prakash, 2015). The doctors can use smart glass connected with the network to read the patient data and proceed further with the treatment.

There are much more application of IoT devices in the health care industry but there are risks associated with the application of IoT devices and this should be mitigated before the application.

Application in the Manufacturing Industry

With the application of IoT devices in the manufacturing of a product it can be one smartly and efficiently reducing the manufacturing cost and waste generated from the manufacturing of the product. New technologies are continuously evolved for manufacturing the products more efficiently (Bi, Da Xu & Wang, 2014). The IoT devices are used in the manufacturing process to get better production at a less investment. The supply chain can be monitored with the application of Gps tracker in the supply chain and tracking other resources and raw materials (Li, Da Xu & Zhao, 2015). The manufacturing process can be made smarter by interconnecting each of the process and scheduling the process. The task which is to be performed after the completion of the previous ones are managed automatically and there are no delays in the process. Thus the final product can be obtained in a much shorter period of time.

The IoT devices can be arranged in series to take input from different stages of the manufacturing process and provides smart decision for the manufacturing environment. The decision of the system can be utilized to make it automated and self healing. It can fix minor problems in the manufacturing process of its own. Some of the examples of smart manufacturer are:

  1. Cisco
  2. Bosch
  3. Harley-Davidson
  4. Siemens, etc.

The organization can face a lots of problem regarding the manufacturing of a product and it also have the pressure to improve the performance. Robots, sensors, and other IoT devices are increasingly used in the manufacturing process (Golovatchev et al., 2016). The devices gather data from the in line production and the collected data are gathered and the combination of the data is a difficult because different data are generated from the different IoT devices. Different platforms are used for the combination of the data. The main working of this platform is to improve the operation of the devices and track the asset and resource of the project.

The managers of the organization can track the manufacturing process and the usage of the raw materials from any place. They can also use the results to improve the process and optimize the supply chain; they can also adopt new strategy that helps them to achieve their target (Byun et al., 2016). The RFID devices can be integrated with the WSN networks to enhance the communication of the different process collected from the different sensors used in the manufacturing process.

The application of IoT in the manufacturing process of an industry can bring a revolution in the technology. The internets of things are now used widely on most of the devices and it can decentralize the control and double the production of a plant (Toenjes, Kuemper & Fischer, 2015). Thus there are lots of scopes for the organization to manufacture products that can ease the manufacturing process of an industry. The organization can gain profits from these industrial products in the upcoming years (Golovatchev et al., 2016). The products should be capable to handle the manufacturing process and give better results than the products available in the market.

Advantages and Disadvantage of IoT Devices

Advantage

The IoT devices used in the daily life and business and it can be integrated in the health care industry to increase its operation ability. The improvement of the health care industry can be beneficial to the society and the patients. An IoT device can be implemented in the system to monitor the patient’s health condition remotely and thus allowing having proper diagnostic from remote location (Strohbach et al., 2015). The IoT devices can communicate with each other can be used in security devices or controlling infrastructure wirelessly (Sanchez et al., 2014). It can automate the controls of a building like controlling the temperature using thermostats or managing the lighting condition using ambient light sensors, etc. the series of IoT devices can be useful to take better decision like monitoring the supplies in a factory (Shariatzadeh et al., 2016).

Using of the IoT devices can save the time and money of the individuals. The IoT devices are cheaper and they can save a lot of time and thus it has greater usability. It also allows sharing of data between the IoT devices in the network. A better quality of life can be gained from the application of IoT devices.

Disadvantage:

The IoT devices are sometimes not compatible with each other as there are different manufactures of the devices. If the devices are used in the complex system with more IoT devices connected in a series there is a chance of system failure (Mohr et al., 2014). There are security issues associated with the IoT devices because the privacy of the individual can be compromised. There is need of encryption of the data transmitted over the network (Badii et al., 2013). The hackers can intrude into the system network and thus there is a requirement to prevent unauthorized users to intrude into the system. This may cause unemployment of the unskilled staffs and thus it would be an ethical issue for the implementation of IoT in a system.   

Considering the above IoT applications the organization can build IoT devices that would work for increasing in production. The organization can build an all in one device that can track the humidity, temperature, air pressure and other necessary component in the manufacturing line of a product (Hakansson, 2015). The built device should also be capable of tracking the finished product from the assembly line to the ware house. This type of device can make the organization a leader in the producer in IoT devices different sensors can be combined to gather the real time data generated from the manufacturing process (Romero, Barriga & Molano, 2016). For the health care industry the organization can build device that can assess the health condition of the patient remotely and transfer the data to the hospital servers (Prayoga & Abraham, 2016). The doctors can use the data for further analysis and proceed with the further treatment.

Conclusion

The IoT or the internet of things is used in the today’s world to capture and sense the different activities of the individuals. The devices are interconnected in network via the internet and the data generated from an IoT device can be used by another device to generate a senseful data. A good infrastructure is required for the application of IoT otherwise it can expose the organization to mishandle important information regarding the company and it can cause risk for the business. Interoperability is essential for human services items taking into account IoTs to encourage consistent mix of items planned by various producers. Together with interoperability, reliability is another pivotal prerequisite for the selection of the Internet of Things. The IoT increases the security risk for an organization and thus precautions and risk mitigation technique must be applied with the implementation of IoT in the organization. Mitigating the security issues the organization can have huge benefit from the application of IoT. They can improve the utilization of their assets; improve the productivity of the organization, save cost of the production, etc. Moreover IoT is used in smart street lighting devices are used to control the lighting wirelessly and with the features of ambient lighting sensing sensor cost can be saved and the lights can be adjusted automatically.

Recommendation

The application of the IoT devices in a field can increase the security and automate the working condition reducing the needs of manpower. Some of the recommendation are given below that could help the organization to build new products and help the society to lead an easy life.

Building of huge network device: The IoT devices can be built with different sensors and devices that can be interlinked to form a system device. It should be noted that the data generated from this devices are properly encrypted from any unauthorized access.

The entry level security must be strong: The identity of the user and the objects must be strong and must be password protected. If the hacker can get the access of the system then they can modify the system or steal record that can cause a huge loss for the business organization.

Increase the quality of living: The introduction of the IoT devices increased the quality of life and there is a scope to add new technologies that would further improve the quality. Different sensors like the GPS, RFID, IP can be installed in a network to build a system.

Application of IoT in different devices:  The internet of things finds its application in a wide range of devices such as healthcare, manufacturing, transportation, automobile industry, etc. According to the recent trend the IoT devices are used everywhere and for the improvement of the devices there is a need to take continuous input of the device and the system and make the device work in the environment efficiently.

Choice of the customer: The IoT devices can access personal information and it is the requirement of the customer that the information must not be available to the outsiders. Thus the organization have to give focus on the needs of the customer and build the device meeting their requirements. 

References

Badii, A., Carboni, D., Pintus, A., Piras, A., Serra, A., Tiemann, M., & Viswanathan, N. (2013). CityScripts: Unifying Web, IoT and Smart City Services in a Smart Citizen Workspace. JoWUA, 4(3), 58-78.

Bi, Z., Da Xu, L., & Wang, C. (2014). Internet of things for enterprise systems of modern manufacturing. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 10(2), 1537-1546.

Byun, J., Kim, S., Sa, J., Kim, S., Shin, Y. T., & Kim, J. B. (2016). Smart City Implementation Models Based on IoT Technology.

Childs, H. (2013). VisIt: An end-user tool for visualizing and analyzing very large data.

Chiuchisan, I., Costin, H. N., & Geman, O. (2014, October). Adopting the internet of things technologies in health care systems. In Electrical and Power Engineering (EPE), 2014 International Conference and Exposition on(pp. 532-535). IEEE.

Corcoran, P. (2014). Consumer Electronics and the Internet of Things [Society News]. IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine, 3(3), 29-34.

Fortino, G., & Trunfio, P. (2014). Internet of Things Based on Smart Objects. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Golovatchev, J., Chatterjee, P., Kraus, F., & Schüssl, R. (2016, June). The Impact of the IoT on Product Development and Management. In ISPIM Innovation Symposium (p. 1). The International Society for Professional Innovation Management (ISPIM).

Gomaa, R., Adly, I., Sharshar, K., Safwat, A., & Ragai, H. (2013, April). ZigBee wireless sensor network for radiation monitoring at nuclear facilities. In Wireless and Mobile Networking Conference (WMNC), 2013 6th Joint IFIP(pp. 1-4). IEEE.

Gupta, P., Agrawal, D., Chhabra, J., & Dhir, P. K. (2016, March). IoT based smart healthcare kit. In 2016 International Conference on Computational Techniques in Information and Communication Technologies (ICCTICT) (pp. 237-242). IEEE.

Hakansson, H. (Ed.). (2015). Industrial Technological Development (Routledge Revivals): A Network Approach. Routledge.

Ji, Z., Ganchev, I., O'Droma, M., Zhao, L., & Zhang, X. (2014). A cloud-based car parking middleware for IoT-based smart cities: design and implementation. Sensors, 14(12), 22372-22393.

Jog, Y., Sharma, A., & Mhatre, K. (2015). Business Approach for IoT based Health Solutions in India with respect to Osterwalder Framework.International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology, 7(6), 173-188.

Lal, S. V., Palaniappan, R., & Prakash, V. (2015). Real time nursing management system for health care industry by using xenomai kernel.Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 8(20), 1.

Leminen, S., Rajahonka, M., Siuruainen, R., & Westerlund, M. (2014). Opportunities and Challenges for Innovative IoT Business Models–A Delphi Study. IOT Magazine, 1(2014), 12-16.

Li, S., Da Xu, L., & Zhao, S. (2015). The internet of things: a survey.Information Systems Frontiers, 17(2), 243-259.

Mohammed, J., Lung, C. H., Ocneanu, A., Thakral, A., Jones, C., & Adler, A. (2014, September). Internet of Things: Remote patient monitoring using web services and cloud computing. In Internet of Things (iThings), 2014 IEEE International Conference on, and Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom), IEEE and Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom), IEEE (pp. 256-263). IEEE.

Mohr, D. C., Schueller, S. M., Montague, E., Burns, M. N., & Rashidi, P. (2014). The behavioral intervention technology model: an integrated conceptual and technological framework for eHealth and mHealth interventions. Journal of medical Internet research, 16(6), e146.

Prayoga, T., & Abraham, J. (2016). Behavioral Intention to Use IoT Health Device: The Role of Perceived Usefulness, Facilitated Appropriation, Big Five Personality Traits, and Cultural Value Orientations. International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), 6(4).

Romero, C. D. G., Barriga, J. K. D., & Molano, J. I. R. (2016, June). Big Data Meaning in the Architecture of IoT for Smart Cities. In International Conference on Data Mining and Big Data (pp. 457-465). Springer International Publishing.

Sanchez, L., Muñoz, L., Galache, J. A., Sotres, P., Santana, J. R., Gutierrez, V., ... & Pfisterer, D. (2014). SmartSantander: IoT experimentation over a smart city testbed. Computer Networks, 61, 217-238.

Shariatzadeh, N., Lundholm, T., Lindberg, L., & Sivard, G. (2016). Integration of Digital Factory with Smart Factory Based on Internet of Things. Procedia CIRP, 50, 512-517.

Strohbach, M., Ziekow, H., Gazis, V., & Akiva, N. (2015). Towards a big data analytics framework for IoT and smart city applications. In Modeling and Processing for Next-Generation Big-Data Technologies (pp. 257-282). Springer International Publishing.

Toenjes, R., Kuemper, D., & Fischer, M. (2015, December). Knowledge-Based Spatial Reasoning for IoT-Enabled Smart City Applications. In 2015 IEEE International Conference on Data Science and Data Intensive Systems(pp. 736-737). IEEE.

 

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