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Moral Man and Immoral Society

Question:

Discuss about the Moral Man and Immoral Society.

Answer:

Introduction:

One of the important concerns of information technology that is related to IT is Cloud Computing. Cloud computing allow access with many configurable resources such as applications, servers, storage, services, and computer network. The users are enable to do data processing on his own private cloud server or on third party server with the help of cloud computing (Lazar, 2017). The cloud computing serves the IT sector with many advantages, out of which one of the advantages is that it can help to arrange all the procedures easily with less management effort. Other benefits that are included in cloud computing involves reliability and effectiveness. Along with the advantages, cloud computing also has some disadvantage. The disadvantage of cloud computing is that it has less security, vulnerable and is downtime. This essay illustrates details of a case study of cloud computing took place in the year 2010 in Europe (O’Brien, 2017). There are four ethics theories including utilitarianism, deontology, virtue and contract theory that are described in this essay related to the case study. Proper justification is also provided in this easy regarding the case study of Europe.

The most advanced technology that is modern world is the technology of cloud computing. Cloud computing configures many resources including applications, servers, storage, services, and computer networks. The case study deals with a challenge or drawback of cloud computing that took place in the year 2010 in Europe. There is a chance of cyber threat or cyber-attack if there is free data flow (Arntzenius, 2014). The Europe government always provided protection for Europe but the technology of cloud computing deals with an issue of privacy and security. For this reason, the Government of Europe applied different restrictions for this technology. The issue that came out because of cloud computing were showing down all processes in United States. The Government helps the organization to utilize the system of cloud computing under some legal system. By the end of 2012, the sales that were made from the cloud services were about 102.1 billion $ in United States. However, the sales in Europe were about 18 billion dollar only (Chen & Schonger, 2017). The large organization in United States made less limitation in transferring the data to minimize the legal obstacles in Europe. The researchers who are involved with the HP labs are finding out new ways to encrypt the data before they are sent to the cloud and decrypt the data after leaving the cloud. Another problem that appeared in the cloud of Europe is European Data Privacy Directive. This organization in Europe is the main body under European law that checks the data transfer internationally. This organization does not allow any type of European Union Data move outside the area of Europe (Crimmins, 2017). The cloud service is allowed to only some selected countries like Canada, Argentina, and United States.

The problems that Europe faced were not at all illegal. However, taking the ethics in to consideration, the problems were unethical. The government of Europe was trying to protect all the data of Europe from being beached and protecting them from all securities (Dewey, 2016). Here comes the question of ethical as well as non-ethical factors related to the case study. All the four theories involved in ethics are to be fulfilled with the case study that is taken in this essay. The first ethical theory involves utilitarianism, which involves providing the actions that gives the maximum utility, and also maximize utility up to a situation that provides the best activity. The overall satisfaction that is gained from utilitarianism after deleting an individual’s trouble are involved in activity (Hashizume et al., 2013). The assumptions of utilitarianism provide total as well as average utilitarianism. In this case study, the unethical offence that was done against utilitarianism was that the government stopped the data entrance to the cloud because of the security reasons. This boundary stopped sending and receiving of data in the cloud.

The second theory of ethics involved Deontology, which involves any kind of decision that are taken for an activity should involve morality of that activity. All the ethics stated by Deontology are based on several obligations and duties (Zissis & Lekkas, 2012). In this case study, the government of Europe performed unethical duties by not taking any third person opinion, and did whatever they felt was right. This is unethical according to the law of Deontology theory.

The third theory that the ethics provides is Virtue Theory. The decisions that are made and the thought of an individual depend on the character of that person. The way of making decision is known as the Virtue Theory (Van Hooft, 20114). If the person has a good ethical character, the person will make ethical decisions. If the person is not a good ethical person, the decisions taken by them will also be negative for the surrounding and the society. In this case, the government of Europe stopped the entry of data in Europe from outside. The decision that was taken was against the Virtue Theory and the decision was very unethical.

The last theory of ethics is the Contract Ethics. As per the contract ethics, the morality value of a person depends completely on contract. The contract takes out moral rules and all the ethical laws that are related to a person (Audi, 2012). The case study of cloud computing related to the European Government does not involve any contract ethics related to any person. There is no contract that is involved with this case study.

For protecting the data of the country, the government took a decision to stop the transmission of any data in and from the country. This decision of the government slowed down all the process (Niebuhr, 2013). Taking the positive and negative effects of allowing data in the country, it can be taken into consideration that the government should allow transfer of data with some more countries to make the process a little bit faster. To provide security to the country is a good decision to take, but excessive security can result in harmful and slow down all the processes of the country (Fried, 2015). The cloud computing is the most reliable technologies and the best technology for transferring of data. Keeping this in mind, the government should allow the data transfer in and out from the country.

References

Arntzenius, F. (2014). Utilitarianism, decision theory and eternity. Philosophical Perspectives, 28(1), 31-58.

Audi, R. (2012). Virtue ethics as a resource in business. Business Ethics Quarterly, 22(2), 273-291.

Chen, D. L., & Schonger, M. (2017). Social preferences or sacred values? theory and evidence of deontological motivations.

Crimmins, J. E. (Ed.). (2017). The Bloomsbury encyclopedia of utilitarianism. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Dewey, J. (2016). Ethics. Read Books Ltd.

Fried, C. (2015). Contract as promise: A theory of contractual obligation. Oxford University Press, USA.

Hashizume, K., Rosado, D. G., Fernández-Medina, E., & Fernandez, E. B. (2013). An analysis of security issues for cloud computing. Journal of Internet Services and Applications, 4(1), 5.

Lazar, S. (2017). Deontological Decision Theory and Agent-Centered Options. Ethics, 127(3), 579-609.

Niebuhr, R. (2013). Moral man and immoral society: A study in ethics and politics. Westminster John Knox Press.

O’Brien, K. (2017). Cloud Computing Hits Snag in Europe. Nytimes.com. Retrieved 16 September 2017, from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/20/technology/20cloud.html?hpw

Van Hooft, S. (2014). Understanding virtue ethics. Routledge.

Zissis, D., & Lekkas, D. (2012). Addressing cloud computing security issues. Future Generation computer systems, 28(3), 583-592.

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