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NG14 Business Information Technology

Published : 20-Sep,2021  |  Views : 10

Question:

It is basically a literature review for further research. It's impact on technology on higher education. Basically you have to focus on India, particularly on New Delhi to narrow down the further research. You have to make 4-5 hypothesis in that process. 

Answer:

Hypothesis

Growth and popularity of IT in the education sector in India

Alternate hypothesis

There is growth and popularity of technology in the education sector in India

Null Hypothesis

There is no growth and popularity of technology in the education system in India

Impact of ICT in higher education in India

Alternate hypothesis

Information and communication technology has positive impact on the higher education system in India

Null Hypothesis

Information and communication technology has negative impact on the higher education system in India

Impact of globalization in the spread and growth of IT in the education sector

Alternate hypothesis

Growth of information technology in higher education sector is dependent on globalization

Null Hypothesis

Popularity and growth of technology is in higher education system in India not dependent on globalization

Support of educators and teachers in the involvement of technology in Education

Alternate hypothesis

Educators and teachers have shown positive feedback towards incorporating technology in education system in India

Null Hypothesis

Educators and teachers have shown negative feedback towards incorporating technology in education system in India

Introduction:

In this report the impact of technology on higher education in India Education system has been discussed in details. Over the years there have been several modes of up gradation of the current education system that is prevalent in India (Dora 2014). There are several fundamental issues in the education sector that is still relevant in India but having said that the Information and communication technology has been welcomed by many institutions and organizations not only in the higher education system but also in the primary level. The education system in India has set a rigid path and has been following that for a long time (Sinha 2015). For expmaple, most syllabus do not change for more than ten years or more with respect to the dynamic changes I the academics (Woodhead, Frost and James 2013). Globalization and the advancement of technology have made a lot of changes in the basic education system but that is mostly on the private sector. The financially challenged and the marginalized group of people still have the problem of not receiving the elementary education. The Right to Education Act 2010 states that it is compulsory for all children between the age group of 6-14 years to receive elementary education (theguardian.com 2017)

Brief history on Indian education system  

Since ancient times India has served as the cynosure of knowledge to the world. Some of the pioneers of scholarly concepts, famous and renowned academics and intellects who have given this world great knowledge is from the India sub continent.  Ancient Indian mathematician and astronomer Arybhata, who is popularly known as the founder of “zero” is one of the many scholars who has contributed a lot in the current education system. Apart from that, personalities like J.C.Bose, Rabindranath Tagore, Dr.C.V.Raman etc are all Indians who have acquired honor, respect and also several awards from around the world for their great contribution to academics and to the world through their life’s work. (Maity and Maity 2016).

There are several interesting and yet to be known facts about the ancient education system in India, historians have found a lot of information about how technologically and academically forward ancient India was. The education system in that era was of the Gurukul structure, it known to be one of the oldest education systems in the world. A Gurukul is somewhat like today’s residential schools where it is compulsory for the students to stay within the institute’s campus.  With a capacity of ten thousand students Nalanda is known to be one of the oldest universities. Until the invention of scripts and methods of documentation the knowledge that was being imparted by the sage or the teachers were mostly oral in nature. Temples and community centers also organized classes for children’s education. The students were taught various subjects and later different universities specialized in different subjects (Joshi and  Gupta 2017).

The westernized and more content driven education system was brought by the British. After colonizing India during this time the British wanted their children to be educated in the way that is prevalent in their culture and hence set up schools in India. The advent of the present arrangement of education with its westernized style of imparting knowledge was brought into action during the year 1854 by Sir Charles Wood. He set rules and guideline with the approval of the Governor of the East India Company about setting up a university based on the model of university of London (Mandal 2017).

This process of education is still prevalent with few modifications here and there. Inclusion of technology in the education system has been a rage all over the world and so is in India several private schools have developed infrastructure for e-learning. One of the recent changes in the education system is that the marks system has been replaced by grads systems to take the edge off the children (Patil 2016).

Literature Review

Overview of the present education scenario in India

According to Aggrawal and Sharma (2015), in the recent past several arrangements has been made to upgrade the education system in India by the Indian government. These changes are made keeping in mind the changing way of education in the rest of the world and also the ease of the students. Some of the notable changes are the replacement of the marking procedure to gradation system; the elimination of compulsory board exams for CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education) was one of the benchmark changes in the recent times. In the Act of Right to Education it has been stated compulsory elementary education.

Now the question arises as to what extent such efforts in the field of education have succeeded in different states of the country. In the past the country has faced many difficulties in imposing higher education, some of these above stated reforms have really changed the face of higher education in India. According to the authors, there are still many fundamental issues that impact largely on the education system is still an untapped area by the government of private sectors who are leading in the education system.

In the report the author has stated some of the initiatives that are taken to improve the present condition of the education system like the 12th plan of University Grants Commission (UGC), establishment of National Skill Development Corporation in India etc. Information and communication technology is the process by which technology is used to send a piece of information or message to the targeted receiver the sender or receiver can be an individual, government or any institution. It is the system by which information is processed, analyzed and sorted so that the end user gets the information they are looking for.

Education is a process of strategic communication by which teachers are on the sender end and the students are on the receiver end the knowledge that is being imparted is the message that is being sent.

Impact of information and communication technology in higher education

According to Khetan and Gupta (2014), this report includes a vivid discussion about how the information technology and communication process has changed and revolutionized the classroom in the Indian education system. The authors have discussed about the hindrances that technical advancement in the education sector face in India. For example, the inadequate ICT infrastructure like hardware, power supply and also internet in towns and villages as well as in some cities can prove to be the biggest obstacle in implementation of modern education system through e-Learning.  

The authors have also mentioned about the lack of awareness among the institution authorities and teaching staff about the advanced method of imparting knowledge. In this paper we elaborate various infrastructural mechanisms that are required for the installation of technology in education and process by which the interactions are monitored. The authors also discuss about the students reach and point of view in the modern methods along with how they are positively or negatively affected by the process.

According to Sharma (2015), ICT is a convergence of audiovisual networks, applications and tools which facilitates in interaction and multilevel communication or mass communication. The devices used in communication are variable and always upgrading. ICT has impacted greatly on the education system all over the world. India the concept of e-learning is still in its inception stage. In this report the author defines what e-learning and how it means different in different sectors. He says it is basically the usage of computer in the learning process.

Furthermore, Sharma (2015), goes on to describe the two segregation of e-learning which are synchronous and asynchronous. Internet has increased the relevance of the term real time and that is what Synchronous mean "at the same time”. This is when the communication among the participants is conducted in the through internet at the same time. Whereas, Asynchronous, mean "not at the same time," hence the communication process is not happing simultaneously for both ends of the sender and receiver.

Sharma in this report mentions about blended learning, which is a mixture of the traditional classroom along with technology or e-learning devices. He goes on to talk about the scope of e-learning and technology in India, he says that there are two folds to this concept one is from the educator level and the other is from a trainer level.

The advantages and disadvantages of the process are also discussed. There are several cases of dropouts in the process of higher education as well. In the higher education system most students dropout because they cannot take the burden of the fee structure which is on the elevated side if the E-classrooms are available.

To counterfeit the discussion according to Abdullah and Gulzar (2016), the e-learning process is cost effective method in the long run and also allows the students to imbibe the knowledge in their own set pace rather than going on at par with the educator and other classmates.

According to Abdullah and Gulzar (2016), to expand and grow in the global market it is important to conceptualize and implement e-learning tools in the education sector. India has the capability and the infrastructure of providing e-learning technology as the country itself is among one of the leaders in Information technology provider.

 

According to Biswas and Hazra (2016), Digital India is one of the most attractive and most popular agendas of the current Indian government it is a part of Make in India project that the government has undertaken. Modern technology has enables individuals to connect from all over the world easily and effectively. The online education system is now quite prevalent among the urban India. According to the authors, the current UK-India business Council report named Meeting India’s educational Challenges through E-Learning-2015; India has been stated as the second largest e-learning market after US.

The digital India campaign not only seeks to expand the process by which Indians lead their lifestyle and work but is also going to facilitate the education system by implementing new plans regarding e-learning. Some of the agendas of the campaign are to provide schools and other educational institutions with broadband services and Wifi networks which will build a base for e-learning and inclusion of technology in the education sector. One of the most important challenges and aims of this campaign is to bring awareness and train people to become more technologically advanced and use the provided benefits.

On the contrary, in this report the Biswas and Hazra (2016) has defined e-learning and has discussed comprehensively the medium that are used in the current education system to upgrade the procedure in a modern way. Some of these medium are virtual classrooms, usage of e-mail, using applications like Skype or Google hangout etc. he also describes in this report how digital India program is going to impact e-learning. This is an argumentative report where the authors discuss the constraints and the prospects of the technical involvement in the education system (Bhattacharya 2015).  

Biswas and Hazra (2016), state that the cost of data in India is so high that even if it is made available for the common public to consume, they will not. Even in recent time’s people who are living in rural India cannot visualize themselves using internet or availing the facilities that are associated with technology in the education sector having said that, it is also a fact that there is a lack of skilled and trained educators in the country. There is a requirement of people to train others as well that can use the technology optimally and use it for the further benefit of the students.

According to Pande,  Wadhai and Thakre (2016), in this report the authors discuss the concepts of Blended learning and IBT Internet Based Training. According to the authors of this paper E-learning is defined as the process of providing knowledge to the students through various electronic media such as internet, audio, video. There is a lack of awareness among the students and the educators regarding the availability of the technology and the ways to use it. The demand for higher education has seen a rise over the years in India. This is a sign of progress in the education sector but there are various other related notions which are still successful.

Top university campuses of India is in New Delhi like Delhi University and the Indian Institute of Technology etc. these places have several information technology usege in their curriculum like using whiteboard, usage of videos and audio as part of learning method.

According to Mukhopadhyay and Parhar (2014), the authors argue that “E-learning results in higher knowledge retention” as there are various audio visual references that can be made available to the student in the e-learning platform. Blended learning and Gamification are some of the concepts of e-learning which are effective in retention of knowledge. The challenge here is the inadequate knowledge about the facilitates available, lack of trained educators, lack of proper infrastructure made available to every corner of the country. The socio-economic background of the majority of the population is also a factor which behaves like a drawback in this situation.

Impact of globalization and e-learning on higher education in India

According to Dattatraya et al. (2015), globalization has to play a huge role in the current education system all over the world and also in India to its core and now children have to compete on a global basis to make a mark. In the paper the authors have stated that there is a lot of difficulties and problems that are faced by the teachers in the education system as well as the fault in the training and skill development of the educators in the recent times. The authors have tried to analyze the situation and conditions related to the technical institutes. The demand for the seats of technical institutes all over the country has risen exponentially and so is the advent of new institutes with the help of the fish bone diagram concept the issue has been addressed.

Due to the advent of internet the world has become a smaller place but the reach of education has increased. E-classroom allows students to learn from every corner of the world (Altbach 2015).

Schools like Amity International School and Delhi Public schools have incorporated technology into their education system but these schools have an elite group of students who can afford the high fee structure.

Growth of ICT in private sector in the education system

According to Muralidharan and Sundararaman (2015), in this report the authors have stated the rapid and exponential growth of private schools in the recent times. The increasing market share of private schools that have a definite fees structure is especially prominent as it is taking place in a context of increased spending on public education and near universal access to free public primary schools, and raises important questions regarding the effectiveness of private schools in these settings and the optimal policy response to their growth.

The flipside of the growth of private sector in the education industry has weekend the public education system yes it has contributed to the economic growth but only the people who are financially strong are the ones who are gaining from this façade. However, the quality of education on the whole is really low there is a dearth of skilled and trained teachers in the rural areas and hence children are not getting enough knowledge as they should have (Amin 2016).  

According to Banerji Bhattacharjea and Wadhwa (2013), this form ASER reports reveal that 29% of children between the ages of 6 and 14 in rural India attended private schools which charge fees in exchange of service in 2013 compared to 18.7% in 2006, this points out to the rapid increase in market for private schools in India.

Reference:

Abdullah, A.M. and Gulzar, Z., 2016. The Role of ICT for Improving Engineering Education in India: Challenges and Opportunities. International Journal, 4(3).

Aggrawal, P. and Sharma, P., 2015. Current scenario of Indian education system and our economy.

Altbach, P., 2015. Perspectives on internationalizing higher education. International Higher Education, (27).

Amin, J.A., 2016. HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM IN INDIA: HOW FAR IT IS INCLUSIVE?. School of Education and Behavioural Sciences, 21(1), p.171.

Banerji, R., Bhattacharjea, S. and Wadhwa, W., 2013. The annual status of education report (ASER). Research in Comparative and International Education, 8(3), pp.387-396.

Bhattacharya, S., 2015. A Study on the Higher Education System in India and Factors Affecting the Choice of Teaching Career in IT Education. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(4), p.62.

Biswas, S. and Hazra, S., 2016. Digital India: A unique step towards e-learning in India. International Research Journal of Interdisciplinary and Multidisciplinary Studies, 1(12), pp.64-70.

Dattatraya, S.D., Tated, R.G., Falch, M. and Prasad, R., 2015, October. Review of Indian education system. In MOOCs, Innovation and Technology in Education (MITE), 2015 IEEE 3rd International Conference on (pp. 416-419). IEEE.

Dora, R.V., 2014. Higher Education System in India. HIGHER EDUCATION, 1(1).

Khetan, M. and Gupta, V.K., 2014. A proposal for cloud based e-learning architecture for higher education system in India and its impact. JIMS8I-International Journal of Information Communication and Computing Technology, 2(1), pp.65-69.

Maity, A.K. and Maity, S., 2016. Evolution of higher education in India. Evolution, 1(10).

Mandal, K. B. 2017. Upanishad and Education in contemporary India. International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 3(5).

Mukhopadhyay, M. and Parhar, M., 2014. ICT in Indian Higher Education Administration and Management. In ICT in Education in Global Context (pp. 263-283). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Muralidharan, K. and Sundararaman, V., 2015. The Aggregate Effect of School Choice: Evidence from a two-stage experiment in India. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 130(3), pp.1011-1066.

Pande, M.D., Wadhai, D.V. and Thakre, D.V., 2016. Current trends of E-learning in India. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), e-ISSN, pp.2395-0056.

Patil, V.A., 2016. Higher Education in India. EDITORIALADVISORY BOARD, 15(2), p.33.

Sharma, R., 2015. E-learning in India. International Handbook of E-Learning Volume 2: Implementation and Case Studies, 2, p.223.

Sinha, R., 2015. Right to Education in India. RESEARCH HUB–International Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 2(1), pp.1-3.

theguardian.com. 2017. Poor state education in India threatens the futures of millions of children. [online] Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/mar/11/india-education-state-private-school [Accessed 13 Aug. 2017].

Woodhead, M., Frost, M. and James, Z., 2013. Does growth in private schooling contribute to Education for All? Evidence from a longitudinal, two cohort study in Andhra Pradesh, India. International Journal of Educational Development, 33(1), pp.65-73.

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