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Relationships and Behaviour


Relationship between teacher self-esteem and relationship with students with special needs: A personal journey.


1.0 Introduction        

In simple words, self-esteem is used to describe a person’s overall sense of confidence in own abilities and personal value. It is seen as a personality trait that involves a variety of self-beliefs about own emotions, appearance, values and behaviours (Mauro, 2016). Self-esteem is an essential human need that is necessary for healthy development. It is in conjunction with own feelings, actions and behaviours (Reilly, Dhingra, & Boduszek, 2014). Self-esteem is critical to the teachers as they are professional. Professional self-esteem is an important concept and must be highlighted as it makes the teachers’ understand their worthiness and adjust themselves according to the environment. A teacher’s personality and teaching style affects the students’ development as well as their academic performance. The teacher-student relationship is critical for both social and emotional development as the teacher build foundation of students’ growth (Entwistle, 2012).

A child with special needs is an umbrella term having mild or profound learning disabilities, developmental delays or terminal illness (Benn et al., 2012). Every child with special needs need appropriate care and special education needs. Self-esteem not only affects the well-being of teachers, but also the students so that they take pride in everything they do. High self-esteem shall allow the students to accept for what they are by focusing on their strengths and weakness (Zee & Koomen, 2016). Self-esteem is usually developed at an early age as influenced by parents, lecturers or guardians. Lack in self-esteem is a sign of failure that can lead to depression, loss of work and loneliness. Therefore, high level of self-esteem is required to build positive and strong relationships between students and teachers (Sowislo & Orth, 2013).

I personally believe in building relationships between a teacher and students with special needs so that both the parties can benefit from it. At present, there is a great diversity in educational structures and socio-cultural practices. While starting my job with the special need child, I realized self-esteem lacking in the educators that acted as a hindrance in building positive relationships between educator and student. Self-confidence is important as it shall help the educators in influencing, positivity and motivating the students with special needs. I value self-esteem as it helps the students in developing a sense of self-actualization. In my opinion, if the students see that the educators lack self-esteem and are not confident about them, there is a chance that the students would not be influenced enough by their lectures or activities.

In the following paper, I have conducted an in-depth analysis on the ways self-esteem in the teacher or educate affects the students with special needs. The aim is to improve my journey in the line of teaching and learning by reflecting on my own weaknesses and established theories.  The study is important for assessing the impact of educator-learner relationship for special needs. I have described the student-teacher relationship in a special needs school that influences self-esteem and overall performance.

2.0 Personal Reflection        

As a student of teaching the students with special needs, I developed reflective thinking for careful and persistent consideration of the different form of knowledge. Reflection is important for the prospective teachers for laying emphasis and development of skills. This paper shall help in gaining experience and learn from experience and studies to the ways in which self-esteem is important.

2.1 Personal Experience

In my close circle, one of my siblings is diagnosed as a slow learner. My sibling is a child with special needs as he has low intelligence quotient (IQ) and faces trouble in speech. Since I have a close person in my family with special needs, I understand his needs and emotions. I feel the need to build a special bond between my sibling and me. Apart from building positive relations with my sibling, I need to develop basic skills that shall be helpful in his regular life. I do not possess any professional skills or an extensive scale of knowledge that could be very helpful, but the basics can be helpful in his regular life. I shall make personal observations and adjustments as necessary and fruitful for him. My self-esteem is high as I share a relationship with my sibling. I am open to making changes in my teaching styles as required and suitable for my sibling. My relationship with my sibling makes it reasonable enough to work on ways that would boost my self-esteem. With the increase in my self-esteem, I shall be able to enhance his self-esteem. Being a part of the family, I do not have lower expectations from my sibling. Yet I understand that he may have to take some different paths, perhaps windier, to achieve the goals of other children. That being said, I have always prided my teaching philosophy for special needs students as being one of understanding and going the extra mile.

I started working as a special needs therapist in September 2015, and mainly diagnosed dyslexic students. The classes were conducted on one-to-one basis for which I followed multisensory approach. I used the approach with a variety of sources such as auditory, visual and kinaesthetic (Hahn, Foxe, & Molholm, 2014). This idea was chosen as it could help in better development of memory and the students could apply concepts. It was my first job experience for dyslexic and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) children (Mazzone, 2013). I needed to have a lot of patience, creativity and consistency for handling the children with special needs. I realized that I needed to work very hard and smartly (Hudson, 2015).

According to Woods (2012), teaching the special needs children without high self-esteem would not lead to a fruitful result. I was unhappy with the results as no significant progress was made. My self-confidence was declining leading to depressing and negative emotions. The decline in self-esteem affected my behaviours with others and interactive pattern with my colleagues, family and superiors. However, I believed that with the increase in my confidence level, I shall overcome the odds (Street-Caulder, 2012).

The results of my low confidence lowered the learning capabilities of the students on which I realized the importance of self-esteem. This is the reason why I chose this topic for my assignment so that I could study about the factors affecting self-esteem and its impact on students. This shall also help me in improving the quality of life for myself and the students.

2.2 Nurturing and Teaching Environment

The teaching environment for special need students is critical. The teachers must study students’ profiles, backgrounds and prepare teaching materials before class so that they know the ways to handle. In my opinion, an educator must be well-equipped and possess adequate teaching skills. An educator must learn about theories and concepts beforehand so that it can be easily applied in real-life situations (Mazzone, 2013). Basic understanding of the theories and concepts help in building self-esteem. If the educator studies the theories before class or therapy, it shall broaden knowledge-base and enhance self-esteem. Without a clear understanding of the concepts, the educator might not be confident about his presentations (Danielewicz, 2014).

The special students need love, care and understanding. One of the greatest joys of teaching is to nurture special talents in children and seeing the talents blossom (Mazzone, 2013). It is critical to develop understanding and efficient communication between special students and teachers. The special needs students are sensitive and have low-esteem (Kauffman & Badar, 2013). A disability is only one facet of a person. Thus, for people with disabilities, it's important to allow yourself to view your disability as one component of your life, not the only component. The students with special needs face discrimination and stereotypes in the society (Mazzone, 2013). The society puts emphasis on looks and speed to be like everyone else. Therefore, it may be pressurizing for the special needs child to meet the impossible standards (Shah, 2011).

Knowing the above constraints, I felt a lot of pressure on myself. I was nervous while teaching due to the fear of negative feedback and no progress made by the students. These factors lowered my self-esteem. On conducting research, the multisensory approach was appropriate (Hahn, Foxe, & Molholm, 2014). However, I need to develop my professional skills and prepare more activities for the students. I try to be present myself with greater confidence and enhanced interaction so that the self-esteem can be boosted. I can build better relationships with my students and boost their performance with enhanced interaction (Multhauf, Buschmann, & Soellner, 2016).

2.3 Importance of Self-Esteem in Teaching

The previous section elaborates the importance of learning environment in self-esteem. In my opinion, I find self-esteem important as it affects self-image. The professional self-esteem is a structured vision of one’s value in the work role built upon an appraisal of the self about the observations believed about: ability in professional interactions and capacity to accomplish own role prospects (Jan et al., 2015). The teaching profession requires high professionalism as they are the expected norms of the society. The self-esteem at professional level must be adjusted according to the environment, evaluating expertise and recognizing worthiness (Glotova & Wilhelm, 2014).

As one might imagine, there are a number of different factors that can influence self-esteem. Genetic factors that help shape overall personality can play a role, but it is often our experiences that form the basis for overall self-esteem (Mazzone, 2013). Those who consistently receive overly critical or negative assessments from caregivers, family members, and friends, for example, will likely experience problems with low self-esteem (Cherry, 2015). A high level of self-esteem helps in driving motivation and pursues to achieve goal. The dyslexic and other students with special needs have low self-esteem during the school as they are slower in understanding, spelling and reading, discrimination and bullying from friends (Mazzone, 2013). The students with higher self-esteem have better cognitive and social skills. They cope with stress, manage problems in a better manner and have less behavioural issues (Tabassum & Asghar Ali, 2012).

I argue that self-esteem is important in teaching special needs children to manage their regular lives and build a better future. It is critical to facilitate special children’s self-esteem in school and it must be made an educational aim. Along with self-esteem, self-respect is a distinct character trait that determined a degree of modesty. The affect of words on our self-esteem are more powerful than we realize (Mazzone, 2013). What we say to our students can affect them for the rest of their lives. We need to choose our words carefully to avoid permanent damage. The words we say and tone we use has a significant impact on any child. As the special needs students are sensitive, the language and tone is even more critical for them as it can diminish esteem thereby reducing their confidence level (Mazzone, 2013).

2.4 Effects of Positive and Negative Self-Esteem

As stated earlier, I experienced lack in self-esteem when I stepped out of my comfort zone and started coping with unfamiliar situations. Since this was my first job experience as a therapist, I feared receiving negative feedbacks. I compared myself with the successful people who were efficient at their job and the students showing significant progress moved me. These factors created ‘A Negative Cycle’ as illustrated in Figure 1 creating a link between feelings and behaviour (Dervent, 2015). When I felt anxious or uncertain, these feelings affected my results on teaching directly. Being watched or supervised caused me stress. I did not become defensive when I received feedback but I was afraid to provide any justification for my failure (Dervent, 2015).

Positive words have a positive effect on self-esteem just as negative words have a negative impact on self-esteem. It's easy to tell someone to ignore what's being said about them but actually doing it can be rather difficult. The words we use can be encouraging or painful; either way they have an impact on self-esteem of those they touch. The high esteem can be appreciated in teaching ability for working through social relationships (Dervent, 2015). As a teacher, I need to create interaction between myself and students (Dervent, 2015). The negative cycle must be constructed into ‘A Positive Cycle’ as illustrated in Figure 2. A positive cycle can be created by performing positively. If I perform positively, I shall receive positive feedback. On receiving positive feedback, I shall feel positive about my teaching abilities thereby promoting positivity about myself. These changes shall boost my self-esteem. A positive cycle is indicative of coping with the challenges effectively (Dervent, 2015). 

3.0 Importance and Impacts

From the above studies and findings, it is evident that self-esteem plays a critical role in teaching special needs students. The factors identified above are sufficient to evaluate that self-esteem in a teacher affects the student development. Self-esteem is crucial for both teachers and children in the learning process. This section shall be broken into two parts: Self-esteem within teachers and Self-esteem within educators (Meškauskienė & Barkauskaitė, 2015).

Self-esteem is critical for both students and educators as it affects their overall quality of life. Social interactions, aspects and better communications can be established by addressing the issues faced by educators and children with special needs. The social competence due to a feeling of being misunderstood, lacking friends and getting into fights affects the wellbeing of students (Mruk, 2013). A teacher’s self efficacy is said to be have affected by the self-esteem and general self-efficacy. There is a significant relationship between teachers’ efficacy and general self-efficacy. Research has shown that low self-efficacy and self-esteem leads to low or substandard performance. High level of efficacy and self-esteem leads to high level of performance (Khan, Fleva, & Qazi, 2015).

3.1 Impacts of Low Self-Esteem on Teachers

Teaching exposes one’s personality in a manner that other occupations do not. Self-esteem is critical to the teachers as it has a significant impact on the ability to cope, interpersonal communication skills and learning (Dervent, 2015).

The teachers work under pressure as they have high expectations from themselves. It may be difficult for them to feel positive about their abilities. When the teachers are not confident about their abilities, they shall not be able to fulfil the demands of learning environment. The cyclic effect as shown in the previous section is applicable as the performance is affected by negativity (Mruk, 2013). Tiredness is another issue for the teachers as they decline to meet the standards unless they feel good and energetic. The emotional turmoil or the constant companion is hard to deal with if the teachers are tired. The issue of guilt surfaces the teachers if they are low on esteem. The feelings of self-worth are important for the teachers as confidence helps them in being persistent and independent. The students with low concepts are less competent, more stressed and less integrated socially in comparison with high self-concept students (Bernard, 2013).

Self-concept and self-esteem are critical components of the communication process. The communication is affected as the teachers may be consistent with self-images. Every interaction and relationships are affected by the educators’ perception about themselves. The interpersonal relationships between an educator and a student are dictated by the teachers (Meškauskienė & Barkauskaitė, 2015). If the teacher is reserved in nature, the student may not feel comfortable or open to communicate with the teacher. The student and teacher relationship is complex and must not be underestimated (Meškauskienė & Barkauskaitė, 2015). There is a significant chance of miscomprehension in communication among both teachers and special needs students. Both the parties have high expectations from each other. The teachers face challenges of doing everything perfect and right in relation to supervisory roles (Mazzone, 2013).

Not only the teachers’ skills and abilities are affected, but it also affects their learning. Being the higher authority, the teachers or educators must have high confidence in their opinions and judgments. With low self-esteem the learning process gets limited (Mruk, 2013). The negative self-image among the teachers takes control of the learning or commanding process. The educators with low self-esteem can easily get distracted in class as they shall have limited control over emotions and behaviours. The educators shall also prefer staying in their comfort zones as going out of the way scares them (Meškauskienė & Barkauskaitė, 2015).

3.2 Impact of Low Self-Esteem on Special Needs Students

Self-esteem in a student has a major impact on general activities, dealing with challenges and interacting with others. The special needs children face discrimination and bullying that can lessen their desire to learn, willingness to take risks and ability to focus (Nyadanu et al., 2014). However, positive self-esteem is a building block towards a foundation of learning. It is challenging to work with the special needs students as they have low self-esteem and it is difficult to restore their beliefs (Mruk, 2013). The educators can boost self-esteem among them by interaction. It may be difficult to make the student feel good himself, but self-esteem can be nurtured through a continuous process of support and engagement. By appreciating for things, the special needs students can experience success and improve their performance (Reichert, 2012).

The special needs students with low esteem have great impact on their social and emotional lives. The students need to be guided in the field of learning so that they can communicate and behave in a better manner. Children with attention and learning issues often find it challenging to maintain and develop high self-esteem. Their success experience is inconstant. The children with low self-esteem may not stand up for themselves not will they have self-advocacy skills (Day & Hong, 2016). The children shall have less self-awareness as they would have trouble gaining confidence they require in the challenging world. Low-esteem students might have to deal with challenges such as anger, frustration, quitting, denial and avoidance (Nyadanu et al., 2014). The poor communication skills tend to increase the complex social disorder. The students with special needs shall turn greatly impulsive. They are not comfortable in seeking help or sharing their emotions. The bullying and rejection by their peers and school mates also affect their self-esteem negatively (Stoutjesdijk, Scholte, & Swaab, 2011).

As the emotions are low in special needs students, they would face troubles and might get into trouble as they grow up. Since they are rejected by the norms of the society, they may get themselves involved in taking drugs and criminality. Due to increased anxiety and depression, additional difficulties shall be added in the list of problems. The child may also escape schools due to the painful experience of failure. The disability may be too much to handle and the child may become unresponsive to school-related events. These effects shall lead to a lower quality of life (Mazzone, 2013). 

4.0 Theories

Two theories are suggested that can be followed by the teachers to keep their self-esteem high.

4.1 Self-Determination Theory (SDT)

Self-Determination Theory is a macro theory of personality and human motivation that is concerned with the innate psychological needs. The theory focuses on the degree to which an individual’s behaviour is self-determined and self-motivated. The self-determination theory differentiates between behaviours that are experienced by autonomy or that arises from sense of self. The theory helps in determining the psychological needs so that it can be applied to a special needs educator (Haivas, Hofmans, & Pepermans, 2013). According to the theory, there are three essential elements:

Competence- The psychological need seeks to control the experience and outcome mastery (Ryan, 2012).

Relatedness- This need wants to care, experience, interact and feel connected with others (Ryan, 2012).

Autonomy- The psychological need does not mean to be independent of others but to act in harmony with integration (Ryan, 2012).

Deci and Ryan consider both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The intrinsic motivaton is termed for the inherent and natural drive for setting new challenges and exploring new possibilities associated with social and cognitive development. The teachers or educators for special needs students can set challenges for themselves (Haivas, Hofmans, & Pepermans, 2013). They must strive harder for their social and cognitive development. The factors such as feedback or rewards can help in motivating. The teachers’ confidence level shall always stay high (Dowden et al., 2013). The results that would be seen in special needs children making progress shall at as intrinsic motivational factor. It shall encourage the educator in putting efforts to benefit the child as much possible. Intrinsic motivation leads to high-quality learning and creativity and can be systematically undermined by educators (Tadic, 2015).

The extrinsic motivation is a form that arises from external sources. External rewards can be given to the teachers for keeping their self-esteem high. The extrinsic motivation shall help the educators in doing their task effectively mainly because of the reward or benefit upon successful progress in children (Suls, 2014). The extrinsic motivational factors change an attitude of inner acceptance of the utility of the task. For example, if a teacher believes that not doing the work effectively would not lead to rewards, he would try to put best efforts and keep patience with the special needs children (Ryan, 2012).

4.2 Transactional Analysis

The early transactional theory was proposed by Berne comprised of three aspects: parent, adult and child. The model integrates four life positions that can be implicated by educators (Berne, 2016). The first position is I'm OK and you are OK. It is the healthiest position in which the individual feels good about himself and others. The educators must reach this level in which they feel good about others and their competence. At this level the self-esteem of the educators is the highest (de Graaf & Rosseau, 2015). The second position is I'm OK and you are not OK. This position must not be acquired by the educators as it allows the individual to feel good about themselves but se others as damaged. The position is not healthy for educators of special needs students as teaching them requires a lot of compassion and patience.

The third position is I'm not OK and you are OK. This indicates a position of low self-esteem in which the individuals look at themselves as weak. These individuals consider abusing unconsciously as OK. These people compromise on self-respect and have no self-confidence. This position must not be desirable by the educators as unconsciously accepting abuse would further diminish their self-esteem (Clarkson, 2013). The fourth position is I'm not OK and you are not OK. This is the worst position as there is no hope for both parties. The individual have no self-esteem nor do they have belief in others. This state must totally be avoided by the educators as it not only considers self-esteem as low, but also have no hopes for the students (Barrow, 2015).

This theory can be applied for treating psychological disorders and proves as an effective therapy for special needs students. Since the theory can be extended to analysis of systems, it can be used by educators to maintain appropriate level of communication with students or other necessary parties. Every individual has a desire for positive growth that must be applied in special needs educators. The emotional difficulties can be handled using this approach. The model can be used to build relationships, manage classrooms and meet the needs of the educators. This model can be useful to build confidence among educators and special needs students (Berne, 2016).

According to the transactional analysis model, here are three ego-states that can be consistently used:

Parent- It is a state in which the people behave, think and feel in response to how their parental figures have acted. The educators might shout at the students due to loss of patience a they would have learned from an influential figure as a child. The educators must avoid shouting at the special needs students as they are slow in learning and require special care and attention (Bailey et al., 2013).

Adult- It is a state of ego that can be used to strengthen the goal of transactional analysis. They can be directed towards as an adult as it is the most artificially intelligent system. In an adult ego state, the educator shall be directed towards achieving the objective of appraisal (Bailey et al., 2013).

Child- It is a state of ego in which the people behave or think in a manner similar to that of a child. The individuals may cry when they are performing poor and may respond joyfully when they accomplish objectives successfully (Bailey et al., 2013).

4.3 Expression and Discussion

This section provides a critical analysis if the special needs students must be helped to make feel them feel better about themselves. The major question lies in the pro-self-esteem holding persons such as educators if they should improve perceptions regarding own worth. The benefits of high self-esteem and problems related with low self-esteem have been discussed in the previous sections. The transactional analysis model shall help in building positive self-esteem, enhancing communications, improving relationships and overall performance. The students shall be affected academically, socially and emotionally (Zee & Koomen, 2016).

Firstly, there is a clear link between feeling good about themselves and their social behaviours. Every individual needs to make constructive life choices. Every school needs to enhance self-esteem in teachers for three reasons. The school is a social agency and is a means to contribute health and well-being. With low self-esteem come abuse, suicide and crime that are often seen in people (Iurea, 2015). Enhancing self-esteem is a matter of moral imperative because otherwise the schools would not be able to provide support and growth to special needs students. The second reason is the relation between self-esteem and achievement. The self-esteem is related with participation, self-direction and various types of achievement. The link is weak when the global self-esteem is involved (Vitz, 2016). However, in specific situations, the moral argument have a vested interested in enhancing self-esteem. The third reason is the idea of personal development by facing challenges and tackling problems. Conditions like bullying and societal norms contribute to decline of self-esteem (Zee & Koomen, 2016).

The idea of enhancing self-esteem in schools is becoming popular. There are contradictory and conflicting methods for enhancing self-esteem. The educators need to understand that they are not to be blamed in case of failures. There are other significant reasons such as student’s extreme incapability or standardized testing (Vitz, 2016). Self-esteem is increasingly applied in schools as they are taking a significant role in education. The term self-esteem is often confused with self-acceptance, self trust, and self-image (Zee & Koomen, 2016). However, in reality there is no proper measurement for self-esteem. There is not enough evidence to prove that self-esteem significantly impacts anything. In fact, little has been achieved with high self-esteem (Iurea, 2015). For example, Gloria Steinem has written various books suffer from low self-esteem. The rich people have high self-esteem just by being rich, socially connected or being beautiful. A few other people with high self-esteem are noted as inner city-drug dealers and they feel good about themselves. These people have made a lot of money in a competitive and hostile environment (Vitz, 2016).

Another example of a feel-good psychology is a comparison of mathematical skills compared with students in different countries. In this study, the Americans ranked themselves highest in mathematical ability while the Koreans ranked lowest (Vitz, 2016). Therefore, the self-esteem theory is only a perception of reality. When the people feel good about themselves, it might also make a person narcissistic, over-confident or obstructing the individual from working hard (Iurea, 2015). It is argued that if the educators have high self-esteem, they might get over-confident and deny working harder for the special needs students. If they feel good, they might not be open to suggestions and do things in a manner they find is suitable (Vitz, 2016).

However, I am not implying that self-esteem is always negatively related to accomplishment. The above arguments state that self-esteem cannot be measured as a positive or negative relationship to behaviour (Vitz, 2016). Since failure is a part of life, one must accept failure in advance. There are two things that can change the way one feel about themselves- real love and real accomplishment. Firstly, real love is critical for the special needs students as they are different from others. The teachers must try to connect and try to create emotion by showing love to the students. Parental love cannot be integrated by the teachers’ n a single day. The educators must use enough discipline and show enough care to the special needs students. The second aspect is real accomplishment (Vitz, 2016). Real accomplishment majorly affects attitudes. The educators must understand the importance of progress in special needs students. It shall not make sense for the teachers to have high self-esteem if they have not made any progress in improving the students (Vitz, 2016).

Through this paper, I have learned the relationship between self-esteem and the effects of it on the students. The teachers can build strong relationships with the students and improve educational performance, creating a friendlier environment and impacting the lives of both educators and students. The above research shows that positive self-esteem shall impact the future life choices, both emotionally and socially.

4.4 Techniques to Boost Self-Esteem

Self-esteem has always been a concern for students with special needs. The students must be divided into peer groups so that the students have similar impairments. Efficient classroom management is the key to success to boosting self-esteem needs of both students with special needs and educators. It is not necessary that all the special needs students shall excel in academic skills (Heacox, 2012). The educator must take out time for all the students and interact with them regarding their skills. A list of things can be prepared that would help in improving the child’s self-esteem. If the child does something well, the teacher must encourage and appreciate the effort as it can be a huge self-esteem boost (Zee & Koomen, 2016). The special needs students must be explained that they are not struggling because they have a learning disability. The students must be encouraged so much that they keep trying until they succeed. Sometimes, harder goals must be set so that they strive to make efforts and help them in boosting self-esteem (Heacox, 2012).

The students gain self-esteem when they do something well and helps in increasing their focus on little things that they do well. There are a lot of things that may not be possible for the children to do and the educators must give the students a little grace. The educators must make the students understand that there are things that everyone can or cannot do. It is necessary for the students to look beyond school (Zee & Koomen, 2016). They must try and think beyond school and explore careers. The educators must try to involve the students in science field class or adventure activities where they can explore things. They must also be involved in groups for solving a problem or completing a project (Alderman, 2013).

The educators must appreciate themselves by all means. They must not stop putting efforts and avoid getting caught in the social norms. They must not generalize the challenges faced or the failure. The educators must keep their self-esteem high by any means possible and avoid unrealistic comparisons (Gardner, 2012).

5.0 Implications for Practice, Research or Both    

The above research can be implemented on educators, not only for special needs, but the entre educational reform. The special needs educators have a lifelong and significant impact on their students. The teaching not only helps them in living regular life, but also helps in fostering self-esteem among students (Zee & Koomen, 2016). By Reinforcing self-esteem, they can increase learning through motivation. The strategies can go hand-in-hand with teaching academic skills. The teachers need not devote additional time to create a satisfying teaching environment. Self-esteem strategies can be applied in educational as well as organizational fields as it does not require financial cost or budget. It involves care and sensitivity (Ferris et al., 2014).

At the organizational level, the managers can apply self-esteem strategies for creating belongingness among employees. In the school setting, the teachers can contribute in making a difference by tutoring and encouraging students. The teaching profession requires high professionalism as they are the expected norms of the society.  I personally believe in building relationships between a teacher and students with special needs so that both the parties can benefit from it. In my opinion, if the students see that the educators lack self-esteem and are not confident about them, there is a chance that the students would not be influenced enough by their lectures or activities. The teachers must study students’ profiles, backgrounds and prepare teaching materials before class so that they know the ways to handle. They can be given choices and decision making opportunities for managing real life scenarios. Further research can be carried if the performance of the special needs students improved after laying emphasis on self-esteem. The feelings among the educators must also be tested. The research can also be conducted for measuring the mixed effects of academic and extra curriculums results by taking into consideration self-esteem and lecturer relationship. The research can also be conducted over periods to assess the perceptions of students as well as teachers that would change considerably over time (Nyadanu et al., 2014).

6.0 References

Alderman, M. (2013). Motivation for achievement: Possibilities for teaching and learning (4th ed.). Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bailey, J., Hill, K., Guttmannova, K., Oesterle, S., Hawkins, J., Catalano, R., & McMahon, R. (2013). The association between parent early adult drug use disorder and later observed parenting practices and child behavior problems: 

Barrow, G. (2015). Transactional analysis in the classroom, staffroom and beyond. Pastoral Care In Education, 33(3), 169-179. 

Benn, R., Akiva, T., Arel, S., & Roeser, R. (2012). Mindfulness training effects for parents and educators of children with special needs. 

Bernard, M. (2013). Strength of self-acceptance. New York, N.Y.: Springer.

Berne, E. (2016). Transactional analysis in psychotherapy (12th ed.). New York: Grove Press.

Cherry, K. (2015). How Do Psychologists Define Self-Esteem?. Verywell. Retrieved 16 June 2016,

Clarkson, P. (2013). Transactional Analysis Psychotherapy. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis.

Danielewicz, J. (2014). Teaching selves: Identity, pedagogy, and teacher education (5th ed.). 

Day, C. & Hong, J. (2016). Influences on the capacities for emotional resilience of teachers in schools serving disadvantaged urban communities: Challenges of living on the edge. Teaching And Teacher Education, 59, 115-125.

de Graaf, A. & Rosseau, M. (2015). Transactional Analysis and Conflict Management: 

Dervent, F. (2015). The effect of reflective thinking on the teaching practices of preservice physical education teachers. 

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