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Retail Management: Quantitative Research

Question: 

Discuss about the Retail Management for Quantitative Research. 

Answer: 

Quantitative Research

The research method, which was conventionally applied for quite a few decades, was the quantitative method that began in the natural sciences and was related with inspecting things that can be surveyed and calculated in any way. Various researchers and professors give various explanations regarding quantitative research. Here are a few of them:

Punch (2013) states that quantitative research is a method for examining objective hypotheses by exploring the connection between variables. These variables, consecutively, could be calculated, characteristically on devices, in order that numbered figures can be evaluated employing statistical measures. The ultimate written account has a fixed framework comprising of foreword, literary review and hypothesis, methodologies, outcome, and arguments. Similar to qualitative researchers, individuals who participate in this type of research have conjectures regarding examining theories inferentially, putting up defenses against partiality, calculating for substitute justifications, in addition to being capable of simplifying and replicating the conclusions. Furthermore, Creswell (2013) has provided a very brief description of quantitative research as a kind of research, which is describing phenomena by gathering numerical information, which are evaluated employing scientifically based techniques, specifically statistics.

Davies and Hughes (2014) opine that the purpose of quantitative research is to find out answers to questions by employing and applying scientific methods. These methods have been constructed so that there is a rise in the likelihood that the data gathered would be appropriate to the query posted and would be dependable and impartial. However, there is no assurance that any particular research activity would generate pertinent, consistent and neutral data. Nonetheless, scientific research methodologies are more probable to accomplish so than any other process.

In a nutshell, quantitative research usually concentrates on gauging societal reality. Quantitative research or queries are looking for quantities in anything and to set up exploration numerically. Quantitative researchers observe the humankind as actuality that could be impartially decided, so strict directions in the course of data compilation and examination are very significant.

  • How quantitative research works?

The type of research method employed for a review would depend upon the plans and purposes of your research – those are in order summarized in the research queries or hypotheses. All residual features of the proposal would ensue from the research outline, and that is why it is imperative to get that right prior to focusing on those aspects (Jensen 2013).

To properly comprehend this method of research we must to turn the spotlight on its key principles. There are three: monitoring and describing anything that takes place, gathering data, and evaluating the data. The amalgamation of these three principles is at work while providing understandable and well-studied conclusions.

Monitoring and elaborating incidents is the primary step. The quest for this clarification can be provided in the shape of a query. It can moreover be stated as an assumption. In the context of a theory, the hunt for a clarification is formulated as a declaration to be verified or negated – based on the objectives of the research. The compilation of data in quantitative research is what differentiates it from other varieties. Quantitative research is concentrated specially on numerical statistics, also identified as ‘data.’ Since the study needs its composer to make use of numerical examination to examine what is being surveyed, the data amassed should be in figures. The last stage of the study engages the use of math to evaluate the information gathered. This is prepared with figures. When most individuals reflect on quantitative research, they consider particularly on statistics (Riff, Lacy and Fico 2014).

Steps in quantitative research

Figure 1. Steps in quantitative research

Source: Ryerson University

Different Types of Quantitative Research

There are four fundamental kinds of quantitative research: survey research, co-relational research, causal-comparative research, and experimental research. 

Survey Research

Survey research employs questioning, opinion polls, and sampling surveys to obtain a sense of conduct with concentrated precision. It permits researchers to analyze conduct and then provide the conclusions in a correct way. This is typically presented in percentage wise. Review research can be performed about one group particularly or utilized to evaluate numerous groups (O’Leary 2013).

Co-Relational Research 

Co-relational research checks for the associations between the two variables. Carrying out of co-relational examination study is conducted to set up what the influence of one variable on the other one may possibly be and how that has an impact on the association. Co-relational research is carried out with the intention of explaining a perceived incident. In co-relational research, the review is carried out on a bare minimum of two assemblies. In the majority of co-relational research, in attendance is a certain level of management mixed up with the definite variables being examined. Just when the data is accumulated, it is then evaluated scientifically to present outcomes regarding the effect that one of them has on the other one (Mertens 2014).

Causal-Comparative Research 

Causal-comparative research gives the impression of uncovering a cause and effect association. This research study is not carried out between the two of the assemblies on one another. Instead of looking exclusively for a statistical connection between two of the variables it attempts to recognize, particularly, how the various assemblies are influenced by the identical situations. Causal-comparative study engages contrasting. In causal-comparative studies the review of two or multiple assemblies are done not including focus on their connection. As always, the application of statistical investigation is employed to produce the information in a comprehensible technique for production (Mertens 2014).

Experimental Research 

Though queries might be put forward in the other shapes of study, experimental study is directed distinctively by a theory. From time to time experimental reviews can have more than a few hypotheses. This type of study is the rock layer of most disciplines, above all the biological sciences (Bryman 2015).

  • When to use quantitative methods

If we take on a practical line of strategy to research techniques, before everything else we could do with to finding out what types of queries are best responded to using quantitative approaches in opposition to qualitative analysis methods. There are six key kinds of research queries that quantitative research method  is for the most part suitable to find a respond to:

  1. The primary one is when a quantitative answer is required in the research study. Qualitative and non-numerical processes, that deal with secondary data like journals and articles, would clearly not offer us with the mathematical response we require.
  2. Mathematical change can as well just precisely be researched using quantitative research techniques. We will definitely need to conduct a quantitative research study to come across out the response (Yilmaz 2013).
  3. Quantitative research is of use for carrying out addressees distribution. It is carried out by segregating the populace into units whose associates are related to one another and separate from other units. Quantitative research is employed to calculate approximately the dimension of an addressees division as a consequent stage to a qualitative research to measure outcomes got hold of in a qualitative research study and to verify data obtained from qualitative study (Goertz and Mahoney 2012).
  4. Quantitative research is also useful to quantify opinions, attitudes and behaviors and find out how the whole population feels about a certain issue. For example, when we want to find out the exact number of people who think a certain way, to set baselines and to ensure that the students can share some comments or ideas to a new course.
  5. Quantitative research is suitable to explain some phenomena. Those kind of question can be studied successfully using quantitative methods, and many statistical techniques have been developed to make us predict scores on one factor or variable from scores on one or more other factors or variables (Shepheris et al. 2016).
  6. The final activity for which quantitative research is especially suited is the testing of hypotheses. We might want to explain something, for example whether there is a relationship between students’ achievement and their self esteem and social background (Soy 2015).

The types of problem or research outlined in 1 to 4 are called 'descriptive research' because we are only trying to describe a situation while those in 5 and 6 are called 'inferential research' because we are trying to explain something rather than just describe it. The former uses descriptive statistics whereas the latter uses inferential statistics. However, the ultimate goal of any quantitative research is to generalize the “truth” found in the samples to the population (while the ultimate goal of any qualitative research is to understand a certain phenomenon.)

Advantages of Quantitative Research

Quantitative research allows the researcher to easily calculate and evaluate data. It enables the researcher to conduct a more objective research. It is mostly used to test hypotheses in experimental researches as it has the ability to calculate data using figures and statistics. Some advantages of using the quantitative method for research purposes are:

  1. Supplies estimation of populace in general
  2. Point out the breadth of outlooks held by individuals
  3. Supplies outcomes that can be reduced to statistics
  4. Permits for statistical evaluation involving different groups
  5. Has accuracy, is ultimate and homogeneous
  6. Calculates level of incidence, procedures, drifts, etc
  7. Answers questions like "How many?" or "How often?" (Denscombe 2014) 

Market Analysis of Melbourne Museum

  • Research objectives

The aims of this research are as follows:

  • To investigate the market condition of museum communities
  • To understand the visitor perceptions or behaviors
  • To analyze the market of Melbourne Museum
  • Formulate hypotheses

H0. Product diversity does not affect the visitor count of Melbourne Museum

H1. Product diversity affects the visitor count of Melbourne Museum

  • Research design

Research methodology assists in representing the outline of the fundamentals of the whole study (Robson and McCartan 2016). It comprises of research design, sampling method and size in addition to the data collection process for this specific research study. Therefore, it can be commented that the research method is the process taken on by the investigator so as to arrive at a solid inference and complete the research purposes. Selecting of an inappropriate method might instigate the difference of outcomes from the framed research aims. Consequently, the researcher basically concentrates on perceiving the importance and repercussion of each stage of the examination policies. In order to carry out this research productively, the researcher has put into action suitable research methodology in accordance with the research topic (Robson and McCartan 2016). Research design gives a picture of the further progress and course of the research study. This survey topic is based on the market analysis of Melbourne Museum and as a result, the researcher requires depending on the primary sources of data instead of the secondary ones. With the aim of gaining precise research conclusion, the researcher has gathered relevant data from surveys and questionnaires (Mackey and Gass 2015).

  • Sampling method

In this survey, sampling of primary data is a vital procedure. Sampling method decides the selection method of the respondents to carry out an investigation. It points to the choosing of the appropriate interviewee in order that the research purpose is met. In this research, probabilistic sampling would be most appropriate. Probabilistic sampling would be suitable for this research, as it would provide variation in the responses gathered by employing primary data collection process (Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault 2015).

  • Sampling size

Sample is singularly one of the most important features of the sampling design of a research proposal. Sampling size indicates to the quantity of respondents who took part in the primary information collection process, a part of the quantitative research procedure. As the researcher has implemented probabilistic sampling method, it is essential to choose a medium sample size to lessen mistakes of opportune sampling. In this review total 65 respondents were accosted for carrying out the survey. It was found that 100% of the respondents responded to the queries.

  • Data collection

In this research, the researcher has conducted primary data collection process for gaining sufficient knowledge regarding the research topic. In order to conduct an efficient primary data collection, the researcher has conducted surveys and interviews to gather accurate and up-to-date information (Flick 2015). In this study, it is extremely essential to depend on the primary sources of data. Other than that, the topic is quite relevant and contemporary and several aspects are under examination (Panneerselvam 2014).

. A quantitative study has been carried out for the respondents. A questionnaire was composed to survey the number of visitors at the museum, and find out the overall visitor count of museums in generals. The questions also aimed to find what are the major attractions in a museum, the products that are mostly bought, and the age groups that majorly visit museums. The aim was to find out which product attracts which age group so that the museum management can introduce changes wherever required. The only problem with the primary data is that in majority of the cases it has been seen that customers data are not reliable as they do not go through the questionnaire properly and provides us vague answers. However collecting primary data is also a tough ask in some cases due to limited time and budget.

The respondents were directly approached and they were provided with a brief background of the survey. Then the questionnaires were handed out to them. It did not take much time for them to answer the questions as they were mostly close-ended questions. Primary data was accumulated from the visitors that make the research more consistent as well as legitimate.

  • Questions and question orders

The following questions were included in the questionnaire for the 65 respondents to answer and complete the market analysis.

  1. Are you male or female?
  2. Which category best represents your age?
  3. What is your marital status?
  4. In what state or territory do you live?
  5. What is the highest level of school you have completed or the highest degree you have received?
  6. Which of the following categories best describes your position status?
  7. What was your Net income in the last year?
  8. In your free time, which of these attractions would you likely to visit? Please rank 1most likely 7 least.
  9. How did you hear about Melbourne Museum?
  10. How many times do you visit Melbourne Museum (average )
  11. What is your motivation for visiting Melbourne Museum?
  12. Have you purchased at the Melbourne Museum shop before?
  13. If you are not likely to purchase our product such as toys, cloth, book, bag, artwork, jewelry and accessories, why not?
  14. What product have you purchased at the Melbourne Museum shop?
  15. Why was it purchased?
  16. How much money did you spend on the merchandise?
  17. How would you judge the value for the price?
  18. Would you buy the product again?
  19. Other than the product itself, which of the following would most influence you when deciding to buy it? 

References    

Bryman, A., 2015. Social research methods. Oxford university press.

Creswell, J.W., 2013. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.

Davies, M.B. and Hughes, N., 2014. Doing a successful research project: Using qualitative or quantitative methods. Palgrave Macmillan.

Denscombe, M., 2014. The good research guide: for small-scale social research projects. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).

Flick, U., 2015. Introducing research methodology: A beginner's guide to doing a research project. Sage

Goertz, G. and Mahoney, J., 2012. A tale of two cultures: Qualitative and quantitative research in the social sciences. Princeton University Press.

Jensen, K.B. ed., 2013. A handbook of media and communication research: Qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Routledge.

Mackey, A. and Gass, S.M., 2015. Second language research: Methodology and design. Routledge

Mertens, D.M., 2014. Research and evaluation in education and psychology: Integrating diversity with quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. Sage publications.

O'Leary, Z., 2013. The essential guide to doing your research project. Sage.

Panneerselvam, R., 2014. Research methodology. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd

Punch, K.F., 2013. Introduction to social research: Quantitative and qualitative approaches. Sage.

Riff, D., Lacy, S. and Fico, F., 2014. Analyzing media messages: Using quantitative content analysis in research. Routledge.

Robson, C. and McCartan, K., 2016. Real world research. Wiley

Ryerson.ca. 2016. ryerson - Ryerson University - Ryerson University. [online] Available at: http://www.ryerson.ca/index.html

Sheperis, C.J., Young, J.S. and Daniels, M.H., 2016. Counseling research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. Pearson.

Soy, S., 2015. The case study as a research method.

Taylor, S.J., Bogdan, R. and DeVault, M., 2015. Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource. John Wiley & Sons

Yilmaz, K., 2013. Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Traditions: epistemological, theoretical, and methodological differences.European Journal of Education, 48(2), pp.311-325.

 

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