The research method, which was conventionally applied for quite a few decades, was the quantitative method that began in the natural sciences and was related with inspecting things that can be surveyed and calculated in any way. Various researchers and professors give various explanations regarding quantitative research. Here are a few of them:
Punch (2013) states that quantitative research is a method for examining objective hypotheses by exploring the connection between variables. These variables, consecutively, could be calculated, characteristically on devices, in order that numbered figures can be evaluated employing statistical measures. The ultimate written account has a fixed framework comprising of foreword, literary review and hypothesis, methodologies, outcome, and arguments. Similar to qualitative researchers, individuals who participate in this type of research have conjectures regarding examining theories inferentially, putting up defenses against partiality, calculating for substitute justifications, in addition to being capable of simplifying and replicating the conclusions. Furthermore, Creswell (2013) has provided a very brief description of quantitative research as a kind of research, which is describing phenomena by gathering numerical information, which are evaluated employing scientifically based techniques, specifically statistics.
Davies and Hughes (2014) opine that the purpose of quantitative research is to find out answers to questions by employing and applying scientific methods. These methods have been constructed so that there is a rise in the likelihood that the data gathered would be appropriate to the query posted and would be dependable and impartial. However, there is no assurance that any particular research activity would generate pertinent, consistent and neutral data. Nonetheless, scientific research methodologies are more probable to accomplish so than any other process.
In a nutshell, quantitative research usually concentrates on gauging societal reality. Quantitative research or queries are looking for quantities in anything and to set up exploration numerically. Quantitative researchers observe the humankind as actuality that could be impartially decided, so strict directions in the course of data compilation and examination are very significant.
The type of research method employed for a review would depend upon the plans and purposes of your research – those are in order summarized in the research queries or hypotheses. All residual features of the proposal would ensue from the research outline, and that is why it is imperative to get that right prior to focusing on those aspects (Jensen 2013).
To properly comprehend this method of research we must to turn the spotlight on its key principles. There are three: monitoring and describing anything that takes place, gathering data, and evaluating the data. The amalgamation of these three principles is at work while providing understandable and well-studied conclusions.
Monitoring and elaborating incidents is the primary step. The quest for this clarification can be provided in the shape of a query. It can moreover be stated as an assumption. In the context of a theory, the hunt for a clarification is formulated as a declaration to be verified or negated – based on the objectives of the research. The compilation of data in quantitative research is what differentiates it from other varieties. Quantitative research is concentrated specially on numerical statistics, also identified as ‘data.’ Since the study needs its composer to make use of numerical examination to examine what is being surveyed, the data amassed should be in figures. The last stage of the study engages the use of math to evaluate the information gathered. This is prepared with figures. When most individuals reflect on quantitative research, they consider particularly on statistics (Riff, Lacy and Fico 2014).
Figure 1. Steps in quantitative research
Source: Ryerson University
There are four fundamental kinds of quantitative research: survey research, co-relational research, causal-comparative research, and experimental research.
Survey research employs questioning, opinion polls, and sampling surveys to obtain a sense of conduct with concentrated precision. It permits researchers to analyze conduct and then provide the conclusions in a correct way. This is typically presented in percentage wise. Review research can be performed about one group particularly or utilized to evaluate numerous groups (O’Leary 2013).
Co-relational research checks for the associations between the two variables. Carrying out of co-relational examination study is conducted to set up what the influence of one variable on the other one may possibly be and how that has an impact on the association. Co-relational research is carried out with the intention of explaining a perceived incident. In co-relational research, the review is carried out on a bare minimum of two assemblies. In the majority of co-relational research, in attendance is a certain level of management mixed up with the definite variables being examined. Just when the data is accumulated, it is then evaluated scientifically to present outcomes regarding the effect that one of them has on the other one (Mertens 2014).
Causal-comparative research gives the impression of uncovering a cause and effect association. This research study is not carried out between the two of the assemblies on one another. Instead of looking exclusively for a statistical connection between two of the variables it attempts to recognize, particularly, how the various assemblies are influenced by the identical situations. Causal-comparative study engages contrasting. In causal-comparative studies the review of two or multiple assemblies are done not including focus on their connection. As always, the application of statistical investigation is employed to produce the information in a comprehensible technique for production (Mertens 2014).
Though queries might be put forward in the other shapes of study, experimental study is directed distinctively by a theory. From time to time experimental reviews can have more than a few hypotheses. This type of study is the rock layer of most disciplines, above all the biological sciences (Bryman 2015).
If we take on a practical line of strategy to research techniques, before everything else we could do with to finding out what types of queries are best responded to using quantitative approaches in opposition to qualitative analysis methods. There are six key kinds of research queries that quantitative research method is for the most part suitable to find a respond to:
The types of problem or research outlined in 1 to 4 are called 'descriptive research' because we are only trying to describe a situation while those in 5 and 6 are called 'inferential research' because we are trying to explain something rather than just describe it. The former uses descriptive statistics whereas the latter uses inferential statistics. However, the ultimate goal of any quantitative research is to generalize the “truth” found in the samples to the population (while the ultimate goal of any qualitative research is to understand a certain phenomenon.)
Quantitative research allows the researcher to easily calculate and evaluate data. It enables the researcher to conduct a more objective research. It is mostly used to test hypotheses in experimental researches as it has the ability to calculate data using figures and statistics. Some advantages of using the quantitative method for research purposes are:
The aims of this research are as follows:
H0. Product diversity does not affect the visitor count of Melbourne Museum
H1. Product diversity affects the visitor count of Melbourne Museum
Research methodology assists in representing the outline of the fundamentals of the whole study (Robson and McCartan 2016). It comprises of research design, sampling method and size in addition to the data collection process for this specific research study. Therefore, it can be commented that the research method is the process taken on by the investigator so as to arrive at a solid inference and complete the research purposes. Selecting of an inappropriate method might instigate the difference of outcomes from the framed research aims. Consequently, the researcher basically concentrates on perceiving the importance and repercussion of each stage of the examination policies. In order to carry out this research productively, the researcher has put into action suitable research methodology in accordance with the research topic (Robson and McCartan 2016). Research design gives a picture of the further progress and course of the research study. This survey topic is based on the market analysis of Melbourne Museum and as a result, the researcher requires depending on the primary sources of data instead of the secondary ones. With the aim of gaining precise research conclusion, the researcher has gathered relevant data from surveys and questionnaires (Mackey and Gass 2015).
In this survey, sampling of primary data is a vital procedure. Sampling method decides the selection method of the respondents to carry out an investigation. It points to the choosing of the appropriate interviewee in order that the research purpose is met. In this research, probabilistic sampling would be most appropriate. Probabilistic sampling would be suitable for this research, as it would provide variation in the responses gathered by employing primary data collection process (Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault 2015).
Sample is singularly one of the most important features of the sampling design of a research proposal. Sampling size indicates to the quantity of respondents who took part in the primary information collection process, a part of the quantitative research procedure. As the researcher has implemented probabilistic sampling method, it is essential to choose a medium sample size to lessen mistakes of opportune sampling. In this review total 65 respondents were accosted for carrying out the survey. It was found that 100% of the respondents responded to the queries.
In this research, the researcher has conducted primary data collection process for gaining sufficient knowledge regarding the research topic. In order to conduct an efficient primary data collection, the researcher has conducted surveys and interviews to gather accurate and up-to-date information (Flick 2015). In this study, it is extremely essential to depend on the primary sources of data. Other than that, the topic is quite relevant and contemporary and several aspects are under examination (Panneerselvam 2014).
. A quantitative study has been carried out for the respondents. A questionnaire was composed to survey the number of visitors at the museum, and find out the overall visitor count of museums in generals. The questions also aimed to find what are the major attractions in a museum, the products that are mostly bought, and the age groups that majorly visit museums. The aim was to find out which product attracts which age group so that the museum management can introduce changes wherever required. The only problem with the primary data is that in majority of the cases it has been seen that customers data are not reliable as they do not go through the questionnaire properly and provides us vague answers. However collecting primary data is also a tough ask in some cases due to limited time and budget.
The respondents were directly approached and they were provided with a brief background of the survey. Then the questionnaires were handed out to them. It did not take much time for them to answer the questions as they were mostly close-ended questions. Primary data was accumulated from the visitors that make the research more consistent as well as legitimate.
The following questions were included in the questionnaire for the 65 respondents to answer and complete the market analysis.
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