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The theory of Personality


Write an essay on The theory of personality. 


For the purpose of the said assignment and reviewing the behavior of the respondents provided, respondent No. 1, Respondent No. 3 and Respondent No. 5 are selected. In the present case, Respondent 1 is an Australian 19 years old Male who is a student and works as a shop assistant. Second respondent is a Chinese male aged 51 who is married with children and pharmacist by profession. The last respondent for behavioral review in the said assissgnment is a New Zealand national who is 59 years old female divorced and an office manager by profession. Thus, in the said assissgnment the behavior of the respondents is to be discussed based on theories of personality and demographics, which will be helpful to a tour guide to suggest best holiday destination for them (Sam and Berry 2010). 

The theory of personality is based on the perception that individuals all over are similar in ma manner yet different from each other. Thus, the term personality under the theories have been described as pattern of featured feelings, thoughts and behaviors which distinguishes one individual from another which distinction remains constant over time and circumstances. Thus, for the said assignment, the Behaviorist theories, the Social cognitive theories and the Humanistic theories under the branch of personality theories will be helpful in determining the behavior of the respondents for preference one of the six holiday destinations given. 

The Behaviorist theory proposes to analyze and review the behavioral features in ones personality which includes also reviews the learning conditions of an individual. Thus, in the said theory great importance is given to scientific and practical thinking along with their willingness to experiment (Malouff et al 2010).

The Social cognitive theory proposes to review the behavior of an individual based on his expectations.  This, this theory places great emphasis on an individual’s thinking and judging process. Thus the theory states that expectation in a human are developed or created when the forces of emotions and memory work collectively with environmental influences an individual’s experiences. 

The Humanistic theories are one of the most popular personality theories which propose that every individual has a free will and that this presence of free will plays an important role in determining how an individual behaves. The said theory concentrates on an individual as a whole without any concentrating on his separate behavior or trait. Thus, it helps in assessing the real free will of an individual (Schultz and Schultz 2016). 

The personality theories are to be implied to the Respondents selected for reviewing their preference for a vacation.

The behavior or personality of respondent No. 1 can be judged under the following heads or demographics which will determine his preference about vacation:-

Age – The respondent No. 1 is 19 years old and age plays an important role in determining the type of vacation one wants to have. According to the personality theory stated above, the behavior, expectations and the free will of an individual can help in determining his personality and eventually his preference. Thus demographics like when an individual will complete his education, the month when he becomes adult, etc are very important to determine his travel plans (Ryckman 2012). Therefore, the vacation preference of Respondent 1 will differ from Respondent 3 who is a 51 years old Chinese man and also from Respondent No. 5 who is a divorced female aged 59. According to the survey conducted, the 119 years old boy would prefer a more adventurous trip which is budgeted, however, the trip of the Chinese male requires to be budgeted as he wishes to travel with his family. 

Gender – The gender of an individual talks a lot about his travel plans or choice of vacation. It is evident that choices, preferences and taste of a female and a male differ. Therefore, according to ones personality which distinguishes the preferences of individual based on their gender, the preference of Respondent 1, respondent 3 and respondent will differ. In the given survey conducted, respondent No. 5 is a female is much more moody and yet wants activities and adventurous on her vacation, thus has given first preference to New Zealand compared to the other vacation options (Williams et al 2010). Thus, applying the humanistic theory, based on free will, the gender plays an important role in determining the choice of vacation (Burke, Martens and Faucher 2010).

Family Situation – Family situation play an important part determining the destination of vacation. For example, a young couple would prefer a romantic destination whereas couples travelling with children would prefer a fun place. Additionally, a couple who is adventurous in personality will prefer an adventure tour to New Zealand. Thus, based on personality theories the preference of individuals change depending on their traits, choices and expectations. According to the survey conducted, the Respondent No. 3 who is a 51 years old Chinese man wishes to travel with his family, thus, his choice will depend a lot on the preference of his wife and kids over and above his individual personality. Thus, the personal trait of an individual to select a holiday destination depends a lot on his expectation and free will according to the humanistic theory of personality (Dyrenforth  et al 2010).

Income – Income plays a very important role in determining vacations. The usual trend is that individuals with higher income indulge in vacations without having budget in mind however; the vacation of an individual with lower income is budgeted and the choice of destination also is always filtered (Boksberger et al 2010). Thus, the individuals with lower income cannot fulfill their expectations or go for a vacation entirely on free will unless they budget the destination they desire to visit (Reynolds et al 2010). In the survey conducted, Respondent 3 who is a Chinese man and a pharmacist wished to take his whole family on vacation and thus his choice along with his destination of vacation will be based on his income. However, when it comes to Respondent 1 and Respondent 5 who are lobe travelers, can budget their vacation destination according to their budget. Thus, in the said case, the Social cognitive makes an individual to think and judge his travel budget and then eventually decide on his vacation (Verweij et al 2010).

Ethnicity – Usually, travelers want to travel to destinations which either they always desired to or to countries whose food, culture, music, fashion attract them. Thus, according to individual’s ethnicity along with his personality, he would prefer a destination which is either close to his home country or totally apart in order to experience new cultures. According to the Social cognitive theory of personality, an individual based on his individual personality evaluates his expectation of the kind of vacation he wishes o go for and then judges which would be his preference based on his willingness to either explore new cultures or visit a place with similar culture of his own. In the survey conducted, the Chinese man’s most preferred destination was Hong Kong where he would find similar culture, food and people. Additionally respondent No. 5 was a New Zealand national and desired to visit New Zealand, however the preference of respondent no 1 was totally different from his Australian ethnicity when he choose Las Vegas a  preferred destination for his vacation. Thus, according to individual personality and based on Social cognitive theory, the preference of an individual for a vacation may depend on his ethnicity (Quintal, Lee and Soutar 2010).

Recommendations to the marketer 

In my opinion, the respondent No. 1 is very likely to prefer Las Vegas as his vacation destination. The respondent No. 1 is a young 19 years old Australian boy who single, adventurous and open to new experiences. Thus, his personality according to the three theories of personality suggests that his behavior, traits, free will and expectation will match the destination No. 2 given in the survey conducted. However, as he is a student pursuing his undergraduate course, he could be confided in budget. Thus, the best way suggested to attract the said 19 years old Australian boy to have a vacation in Las Vegas is to suggest him an itinerary with a low budget trip to Las Vegas that will include new experiences and meeting new friends. Additionally benefit of providing him a low budged itinerary is that he would bring along few of his college friend which would be beneficial for the travel plan marketer and his company further reducing the cost of the Las Vegas vacation. 

Thus applying the learning and memory theory, information and itinerary needs to be absorbed and retained by the boy in a manner that it stays in his memory creating a free will in his personality to visit the destination of Las Vegas. It is stated that memory last from minutes to a lifetime, thus, semantic memory states memory of understanding and different concepts which help in factual recollection of information, therefore, the said theory needs to be applied to attract the 19 year old Australian boy to visit Las Vegas along with friends (Frieze and Li 2010).  

Reference List

Boksberger, P., Dolnicar, S., Laesser, C. and Randle, M., 2010. Self-congruity theory: To what extent does it hold in tourism?. Journal of Travel Research.

Burke, B.L., Martens, A. and Faucher, E.H., 2010. Two decades of terror management theory: A meta-analysis of mortality salience research.Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14(2), pp.155-195.

Dyrenforth, P.S., Kashy, D.A., Donnellan, M.B. and Lucas, R.E., 2010. Predicting relationship and life satisfaction from personality in nationally representative samples from three countries: the relative importance of actor, partner, and similarity effects. Journal of personality and social psychology, 99(4), p.690.

Frieze, I.H. and Li, M.Y., 2010. Mobility and personality. In The psychology of global mobility (pp. 87-103). Springer New York.

Malouff, J.M., Thorsteinsson, E.B., Schutte, N.S., Bhullar, N. and Rooke, S.E., 2010. The five-factor model of personality and relationship satisfaction of intimate partners: A meta-analysis. Journal of Research in Personality,44(1), pp.124-127.

Quintal, V.A., Lee, J.A. and Soutar, G.N., 2010. Risk, uncertainty and the theory of planned behavior: A tourism example. Tourism Management, 31(6), pp.797-805.

Reynolds, K.J., Turner, J.C., Branscombe, N.R., Mavor, K.I., Bizumic, B. and Subašić, E., 2010. Interactionism in personality and social psychology: An integrated approach to understanding the mind and behaviour. European Journal of Personality, 24(5), pp.458-482.

Ryckman, R., 2012. Theories of personality. Cengage Learning.

Sam, D.L. and Berry, J.W., 2010. Acculturation when individuals and groups of different cultural backgrounds meet. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(4), pp.472-481.

Schultz, D. and Schultz, S., 2016. Theories of personality. Cengage Learning.

Verweij, K.J., Zietsch, B.P., Medland, S.E., Gordon, S.D., Benyamin, B., Nyholt, D.R., McEvoy, B.P., Sullivan, P.F., Heath, A.C., Madden, P.A. and Henders, A.K., 2010. A genome-wide association study of Cloninger's temperament scales: implications for the evolutionary genetics of personality. Biological psychology, 85(2), pp.306-317.

Williams, J., Memery, J., Megicks, P. and Morrison, M., 2010. Ethics and social responsibility in Australian grocery shopping. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 38(4), pp.297-316.

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