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Welding Workplace Analysis : Frame and Space

Question:

Discuss about the Welding Workplace Analysis  for Frame and Space.

Answer:

Introduction

This occupational hygiene reports is prepared to document the risk assessment conducted by the OHS Manager after joining the company to understand the risk in the workplace to improve the workplace health and safety for the welding operators at the manufacturing site. It is a small welding workshop with six staff taking care of the welding and grinding operation. The welding workplace can be divided into two unit where the first one consist of large frame and space  while the second one consist of small frame and space (Robson et al., 2007). This report aims to conduct risk assessment of welding workshop, walk through survey of welding and grinding group to research on the health effects on the group of welders and grinders. It also plans a sampling strategy by determining methods and equipment and other resources using suitable criteria to evaluate the results and interpretation.

Purpose of the research

The risk assessment was undertaken to identify the risk in the welding workshop so that OHS manager can address them immediately to improve the health and safety aspect in the manufacturing site. Based on the guideline of Australian institute of occupational hygienists (AIOH) the OHS Manager conducted the risk assessment to identify the risk related with exposure of employees to inhalable dust, and air sampling to understand the iron, manganese and copper during the process of welding and grinding (Hasle, and Limborg, 2006). It also measure Ozone using gas meter.

Relevant Legislation    

Risk assessment

A risk assessment can be defined as the health and safety tool used to recognize the work place hazard, equipment and situation that can be harmful for the workforce. This tool enable the identification of hazards and the associated risk related with the hazard so that it can be evaluated effectively and suitable measures taken to eliminate or control the identified hazard. Risk assessment is an integral part of an efficient occupational safety and health management (OSHM) plan in any company (Quinlan, Bohle, and Lamm, 2010). It helps in educating the workforce about potential risk and avoids accident and injuries. The OHS manager aims to identify, analyze and control the potential risk and hazard in the welding workplace.

Identifying the Hazardous related with welding and grinding activity

Activity in Welding Workshop

Hazards related with the activity

Hot processes related with Welding

·         Burning

·         Fires

·         Fumes

·         Flashes

·         Electric shock

·         Compressed Gas (Ozone)

·          

·         UV Radiation

·         Noise

 

Electricity

·         Burns

·         Fires

·         Electricity shocks

Hazardous substance (Iron, Manganese and Copper)

·         Inhalation of dust, fumes, aerosols and vapours

·         Contact with eyes and skin

Workplace environment

·         Ventilation

·         Hygiene factor

·         Noise level

·         Heat level

·         Lighting

·         Fires

·         Falls, Trips and Slips

Staff element

·         Unsafe staff

·         Unsafe methods

Manual handling process

·         Strains

·         Cuts

·         Crushing

·         Abrasions

·         Musculoskeletal injury

·         Impact

Identifying the people prone to risk

The various people prone to risk at the welding workplace include

Staff in welding workshop including welding and grinding staff

Cleaning staff

Visitors like customers and commercial executive

Risk Assessment Matrix

This risk assessment was done to know the degree of risk and to design control measure based on the priority (Makin, and Winder, 2008). In the first place the consequences and likelihood with respect to each hazard identified were analyzed to understand the degree of risk as explained in the below table.

Figure 1 Likelihood, Consequences and Degree of Risk

The below mentioned table depict the risk assessment matrix for the welding workshop

Hazard identification and related risks

Consequence

Likelihood

Degree of Risk

Hot processes related with Welding

·         Fires, Flashes, Burns, Fumes and UV Radiation

·         Compressed Gas (Ozone)

·         Shock from Electricity

·         Noise level

 

 

3

 

 

 

2

 

2

 

4

 

 

C

 

 

 

C

 

C

 

B

 

 

H

 

 

 

M

 

M

 

E

Electricity

·         Shock, Fires and Burns

 

3

 

D

 

M

Hazardous substance (Iron, Manganese and Copper)

·         Inhalation of dust, fumes, aerosols and vapours

·         Contact with eyes and skin

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

B

 

 

 

C

 

 

 

H

 

 

 

M

Workplace environment

·         Falls, trips and Slips

·         Fires

·         Ventilation, heat and lighting

·         Hygiene factor

·         Noise level

 

 

1

 

4

1

 

 

1

4

 

 

C

 

D

B

 

 

E

B

 

 

L

 

H

M

 

 

L

E

 

 

Staff element

·         Unsafe people and practice

 

5

 

A

 

E

Manual handling process

·         Strains, Abrasions, cuts, crushing, Musculoskeletal injury and impact

 

 

3

 

 

B

 

 

H

Research health effects for Welders

The welding fumes that are produced during the process of welding is characterized with solid particles that are usually less than 1.0 µm in size and is generally formed due to the condensation and oxidation of the vaporized material (Challen and Bedford, 2008). These micro particles get deposited in the gas exchange region of the lungs of the welders which proves to be hazardous for the health. The process of welding, the material that is being welded and the electrodes used tend to determine the chemical composition of the welding fumes and gases and health hazards caused to the welders not only depends upon these fumes and gases but it also depends upon factors like the work environment, the location i.e. whether indoor or outdoor where the welding is done, the quality and type of mechanical and natural exhaust ventilation, the length of exposure, the degree of enclosure of the work station and the personal protection equipments facilitated and used (Challen et al., 2007).

Thus the prolonged exposure of the welders to the welding fumes and gases at high concentrations can lead to several health hazards as follows;

Metal fume fever due to zinc oxide, copper, aluminum and magnesium oxide

Nervous system disorders due to manganese

Siderosis due to iron oxide (Kaufman, 2010)

Nose, eyes and throat irritation

Chest pain

Irritation of the respiratory system

Cancer due to nickel, cadmium oxide, chromium (VI)

Haemorrhage due to ozone

Bone and joint problems due to fluorides

Headaches and dizziness (Meichen, 2009)

Eczema and dermatitis due to nickel and chromium (VI)

Fluid in the lungs due to cadmium oxide, ozone, fluorides and nitrogen oxide

Kidney damage due to fluorides and cadmium oxide

Moreover, it is also the fact that the process of welding leads to the generation of two or more hazardous substance in the working environment and atmosphere and so it becomes important to efficiently evaluate the hazard through measuring the each constituent (Steel, 2008).

Process Description

Plan a Sampling Strategy

In order to analyze the health risks and hazards associated with the welding process, it is important to analyze the working atmosphere and environment by conducting a risk assessment. So in order to conduct the risk assessment, three working groups have been selected as the sample and they have been referred to as follows:

Working Group A: Individuals working in large frame and larger space

Working Group B:  Individuals working in small frame and small space

Working Group C: individuals involved in grinding activity

In order to conduct the assessment two individuals from each group have been selected and thus the total sample size amounts to 6 individuals. In order to select the sample probabilistic sampling technique has been used since it provided an equal opportunity of participation (Sugden, 2006).

Moreover, in order to conduct the study, the air sample has also been collected to test the contents of the air like the inhalable dust, the iron, manganese and copper top analyze the level of the content so that it can be decided upon whether the content level is hazardous for the welders health. So in general there are two types of sampling and they are the continuous and time averaged in-situ sampling (Lodge, 2006). The continuous sampling is carried out through the optical or electrochemical and spectroscopic methods and automatic sensors and this method facilitates in collecting continuous records of the values of the content of the air and then the specific time averaged concentration data can be obtained. The time averaged data is also obtained through sampling for a short time and it is the process where a known volume of air is studied and sampled for a particular average time and it is analyzed with the help of the chemical, physical and biological methods in order to take down the concentration values and they serve as an effective average over a period of sampling.

However in this context, the sample of air collected with the help of the time averaged in-situ sampling to analyze the level of content that might prove to be harmful for the health of the welders.  

Determining Methods and equipments

For assessing the risk, data regarding aspects like inhalable dust, iron, manganese and copper present in the working environment and atmosphere where welding is carried has been collected together with the ozone measurements. The value of these metals and ozone in atmosphere proves to be beneficial in analyzing the degree to which the healths of the welders are at risk.

Determining Resources Required

The resources required for sampling include the quantitative resources that facilitates with the data regarding the atmosphere content of the welding location that include the inhalable dust, iron, copper and manganese (Saunders et al., 2009). The workers have been selected who are affected by the gases and fumes. It also involves financial resources and time resource.

Methods and Measurements

Assessment Criteria used for results and Interpretation

 The assessment criteria involve analyzing the concentration of different gases and fumes in the working atmosphere together with analyzing the health impact of these contents to assess the risks involved. Moreover, it has also been assessed how the contents tend to make a significant impact on the health of the workers and what preventive measures can be used and after the implementation of the preventive measures, data has been collected to analyze the impact of preventive measures on minimizing the health impacts and also assess whether these preventive measures are efficient or not (Lodico and Spaulding, 2010).

Results and Discussion

Analysis and Interpretation

Worker Group

Worker ID

Inhalable dust (mg/m3)

Iron (mg/m3)

Manganese (mg/m3)

Copper (mg/m3)

A

J. Gold

3.2

1.5

<0.1

<0.1

A

F. Black

2.1

1.1

<0.1

<0.1

B

H. White

3.5

2.1

0.1

<0.1

B

C. Brown

5.2

3.9

0.3

0.2

C

P. Silver

4.1

-

-

-

C

S. Green

3.9

-

-

-  

From the above table, it can be said that the air sample has been collected and it has been observed that there certain particles that tend to exist in air in case of spaces where welding process is carried out. The major contents of the air in welding in large frame and larger space and welding in small frame and small space include the inhalable dust, iron, manganese and copper. However the grinding area is free from materials like iron, copper and manganese but it does not contain inhalable dust.

As per AIOH, the maximum range to which the content of inhalable dust needs to be managed is 5 mg/m3 (Aioh.org.au, 2014). So, in this context it has been observed that the values of inhalable dust even though tends to vary as per the space, most of the values are almost close the maximum range i.e. 5mg/m3 which is an issue of concern.

So this high range of inhalable dust to which the workers are exposed while conducting the welding process leads to lung malfunctioning contributing to chronic obstructive airways diseases or chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (Moreton, 2006).

The permissible exposure limit for iron in air in a welding environment is 10mg/m3 (Aioh.org.au, 2014). So in this case, it is observed that the presence of iron in air has mainly been noticed in both the large frame and larger space and small frame and small space and absent in the grinding area. However the figures also tend to differ from small space to large space and it becomes important to take preventive measures.

If the content of iron is not checked then it can lead to acute lung and nose irritation, siderosis which is pulmonary deposit of the iron dust (Blunt and Balchin, 2008).

The permissible exposure limit for manganese is 5mg/m3 in the welding environment (Aioh.org.au, 2014). However, in the particular welding environment under consideration, it is observed the that the content of manganese is less than 0.1 in case of large frame and larger space and it is 0.1 and 0.3 in case of two different workers working in small frame and small space. Even though the figures are at the lower end, precautions need to be taken since high level of manganese can lead to chronic effects like disorder of the nervous system and the chemical pneumonitis (Boyle and Kelsey, 2007).

The permissible exposure limit for copper is 0.1 ms/m3 and it has been observed that sample contains copper as less than 0.1 mg/m3 in case of large frame and large space and in case of one worker in case of small frame and small space the value is observed to be 0.2 mg/m3 (Aioh.org.au, 2014). So some preventive measures need to be taken or otherwise it might lead to metal fume fever and eyes and nose irritation on the part of the individuals exposed.

Ozone Measurements and Analysis and Interpretation

Worker Group

Worker ID

Ozone (ppm)

A

J. Gold

ND

A

F. Black

ND

B

H. White

0.06

B

C. Brown

0.10

From the above table it is observed that the ozone has been observed to be present in case of the individuals i.e. the welder working in small frame and small space. The permissible exposure limit for ozone is observed to be 0.1 per million part of air (ppm) and in this context, it is observed that where one of the worker working in small frame and small space is exposed to a limit below 0.1, the second worker working in same space is exposed to 0.10 ppm of ozone (cdc, 2014).

Thus preventive measures are required since exposure might lead to acute effects like fluid in the lungs, chronic effects like malfunctioning of lungs and haemorrhage (Sugden, 2006).

Control measures

The control measures used by welding workshop to eliminate and control the risk and the related hazard is examined in the below table

Hazard identification and related risks

Control measures undertaken

Hot processes related with Welding

·         Fires, Flashes, Burns, Fumes and UV Radiation

·         Shock from Electricity

·         Noise level

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

·         Compressed Gas (Ozone)

 

·         To provide proper tools to staff for holding and moving to avoid fires and burns during welding.

·         Supplying proper shields and goggles during welding to safeguard eyes from sparks and flames during welding and grinding activities.

·         To provide gloves and fire resistant overalls to safeguard skins from burns as a result of the hot surfaces, sparks, flames and UV radiation (Makin, and Winder, 2008).

·         Instructing all staff to do wedding activities by using extraction arm with flexibility.

·         To store the gas cylinders in the area designated in the workplace.

·         To turn off the valves of gas cylinder after use.

·         Gas welding torches and hoses to be checked regularly and ensuring it is matching the compliance of standard in HSE.

·         To use Gas meter to measure the Ozone.

Electricity

·         Shock, Fires and Burns

·         Allowing qualified electrician to conduct test and checks of portable equipment related with electricity.

·         To make sure Workshop safety policy is followed during checks and tests.

Hazardous substance (Iron, Manganese and Copper)

·         Inhalation of dust, fumes, aerosols and vapours

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

·         Contact with eyes and skin

 

 

 

·         To ensure material safety data sheets (MSDS) are complied with regard to use of hazardous substance.

·         To aim for extracting dusts, fumes, aerosols at the source.

·         To use suitable coolant where possible.

·         To make the staff use the personal protective equipment (PPE) like masks during welding (Lillienberg et al., 2008).

·         It is essential to conduct specific risk assessment for Iron, Manganese and Cooper.

·         To instruct all staffs to use PPE like face shields, gloves and safety glasses.

Workplace environment

·         Falls, trips and Slips

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

·         Fires

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

·         Ventilation, heat and lighting

 

 

 

 

 

·         Hygiene factor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

·         Noise level

 

·         To prevent the walkways from obstruction weekly housekeeping to be done.

·         Deal with leaks or spills instantly

·         To separate the storage area from workplace

·         Non slip material used for floor surfaces in the workplace

·         Marking on the floor to delineate workplace, walkways and storage area

·         Full detection fire alarm system is fitted in the workplace and it is inspected as mentioned in the fire regulation

·         There should be multiple fire exit and it should be marked and free of obstruction (Santamaria et al., 2007).

·         Proper provision of emergency lighting in the workplace

·         Conducting fire drills twice a year

·         Strategic points in the workshop is fitted with fire extinguisher and it is well maintained

·         Staff are given training about using the fire extinguisher

·         To instruct the disposable of combustible waste materials

·         To install fan assisted converted heaters

·         Provision of natural and artificial lighting in the workplace based standard

·         Wekling area needs to be provided with fume extraction facility

·         Provision of hygiene facilities like sop, towel, sink and water

·         Toilet and sanitation are maintained in the workplace

·         Providing staff with change rooms and lockers

·         Common room for taking food and snacks

·         Proper drinking water facility

·         PPE like ear plugs to safeguard from noise level more than 85Db

·         Conducting noise survey when essential

Staff element

·         Unsafe people and practice

·         OHS manager to needs to ensure that staff are given required training and staff found competent should be allowed to work independently

·         A range of PPE is supplied to staff and supported by training to sue the PPE and safeguard themselves in the workplace (Hasle, and Limborg, 2006).

·         Changes in the OHS requirement is informed to staff with regular training

·         Lock the workshop when not in use and keys controlled by authorized staff

·         Working alone should be strictly avoided

·         To isolate electric power after the close of workshop

·         To ensure that staff avoid consuming food and snacks in the workshop

·         To ensure mobile phones is not allowed in the workshop

Manual handling process

·         Strains, Abrasions, cuts, crushing, Musculoskeletal injury and impact

·         Storage of material to facilitate reduced movement and handling

·         Proper manual handling training given to all staff

·         Sufficient use of lifting and moving equipment and operational manual of manufacturer followed while using them

·         To instruct all staff to use PPE like safety shoes, safety glasses and gloves to safeguard from injuries and accidents

·         Staff handling compressed gas cylinders needs to be given proper training and measurement of Ozone using gas meter

Analyzing the Effectiveness of Roof Fans

On the basis of the sampling collected on the first day, it was observed that the welders were exposed to health risks due to various factors like the presence of hazardous materials and gases and fumes in the air in the welding environment and thus in order to control and prevent the associated risks, some control measures were proposed.

However, in this context, it was observed that the management of the company emphasized upon investing in the implementation of the roof fans so that the air can be extracted from the workplace and in order to assess the effectiveness of the investment, sample were collected again that read as follows:

Worker Group

Worker ID

Inhalable dust (mg/m3)

Iron  (mg/m3)

Manganese (mg/m3)

Copper (mg/m3)

A

J. Gold

2.8

1.1

<0.1

<0.1

A

F. Black

2.3

1.2

<0.1

<0.1

B

H. White

3.1

2.1

0.1

<0.1

B

C. Brown

5.3

2.2

0.4

0.2

C

P. Silver

3.8

-

-

-

C

S. Green

4.0

-

-

-    

From the above table, it is observed that the inhalable dust for the welders working in large frame and large space was reduced from 3.2 to 2.8 mg/m3, however for the other worker in same space it increased from 2.1 to 2.3 mg/m3. Moreover for worker in small frame and space it where for one worker it reduced from 3.5 to 3.1 mg/m3, for the other worker it increased from 5.2 to 5.3 mg/m3 and for workers in grinding department where for one worker it reduced from 4.1 to 3.8 mg/m3, it increased for the other from 3.9 to 4.0 mg/m3.

Thus it can be inferred that the roof fans were not much effective in efficiently managing the inhalable dust at workplace.

In case of iron content, it is observed that after the installation of the roof fans, the iron content for one of the worker reduced from 1.5 to 1.1 mg/m3, the content for the other worker working in large frame and large space increased from 1.1 to 1.2 mg/m3. Moreover, for worker in small frame and small space, the context remained same i.e. 2.1 mg/m3, it also reduced for the second worker from 3.9 to 2.2 mg/m3.

Thus in this case, the roof fan was effective in reducing the iron content to some extent in case of both the large frame and large space welders and small frame and small space welders.

In case of manganese, the values almost remained the same, however it increased from 0.3 to 0.4 mg/m3 in case of welder working in small frame and small space.

Thus in this context, it can be said that, the roof fan was to some extent effective but there need to implement certain other specific control measures to reduce the context of materials to minimize the health hazards on the part of the welders.

Finally, in case of copper, it was observed that the values almost remained the same i.e. unaltered eleven after the implementation of the roof fans and so it was not effective in any aspect of reducing the content of copper from the air.    

Conclusion & Recommendation

Conclusion

Based on the survey conducted with the three work groups namely A,B and C related with welding large frame and space, small frame and space and grinding it  was found that roof fans were not effective in managing dust. In context to iron it was mixed as far as the large frame and space while it was constant for small frame and space so it can be concluded that roof fan was partly effective (Santamaria et al., 2007). In case of manganese it was constant except for small frame and space so it can be stated that it helped to reduce health hazard for welder partly. Finally for copper it remained almost the same so it can be concluded that it was ineffective.


Recommendation

It is recommended that welding workshop should use

  • To ensure material safety data sheets (MSDS) are complied with regard to use of hazardous substance.
  • To aim for extracting dusts, fumes, aerosols at the source.
  • To use suitable coolant where possible.
  • To make the staff use the personal protective equipment (PPE) like masks during welding (Lillienberg et al., 2008).
  • It is essential to conduct specific risk assessment for Iron, Manganese and Cooper.
  • To instruct all staffs to use PPE like face shields, gloves and safety glasses
  • Staff handling compressed gas cylinders needs to be given proper training and measurement of Ozone using gas meter
  • To store the gas cylinders in the area designated in the workplace.
  • To turn off the valves of gas cylinder after use.
  • Gas welding torches and hoses to be checked regularly and ensuring it is matching the compliance of standard in HSE.
  • To use Gas meter to measure the Ozone.

References

Aioh.org.au. (2014). The AIOH - Australian Institute of Occupational Hygienists Inc.: DUSTS NOT OTHERWISE SPECIFIED (DUST NOS) AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH ISSUES. [online] Available at: http://www.aioh.org.au [Accessed 1 Sep. 2016].

Blunt, J. and Balchin, N. (2008). Health and safety in welding and allied processes. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press.

Boyle, S. and Kelsey, S. (2007). Welding hazards. 2nd ed. [Adelaide]: WorkCover.

cdc. (2014). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Occupational Health Guideline for Ozone. [online] Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ [Accessed 1 Sep. 2016].

Challen, P. and Bedford, J. (2008). An Investigation of Some Health Hazards in an Inert-Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Shop. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1(2), p.130.

Challen, P., Hickish, D. and Bedford, J. (2007). An Investigation of Some Health Hazards in an Inert-gas Tungsten-arc Welding-shop. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 15(4), pp.276-282.

Hasle, P. and Limborg, H.J., 2006. A review of the literature on preventive occupational health and safety activities in small enterprises. Industrial health, 44(1), pp.6-12.

Kaufman, R. (2010). Health Hazards in Industrial Welding. JAMA, 216(4), p.677.

Lillienberg, L., Zock, J.P., Kromhout, H., Plana, E., Jarvis, D., Torén, K. and Kogevinas, M., 2008. A population-based study on welding exposures at work and respiratory symptoms. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 52(2), pp.107-115.

Lodico, M. G. and Spaulding, D. T. (2010). Methods in Educational Research: From Theory to Practice, Page 24, 2nd ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Lodge, J. (2006). Methods of air sampling and analysis. 2nd ed. [New York, N.Y.]: Intersociety Committee.

Makin, A.M. and Winder, C., 2008. A new conceptual framework to improve the application of occupational health and safety management systems. Safety Science, 46(6), pp.935-948.

MEICHEN, F. (2009). Modern Welding and Health Hazards. Occupational Medicine, 10(3-4), pp.39-45.

MORETON, J. (2006). ASSESSMENT OF WELDING FUME HAZARDS. Ann Occup Hyg, 25(4), pp.421-430.

Quinlan, M., Bohle, P. and Lamm, F., 2010. Managing occupational health and safety. Palgrave Macmillan.

Robson, L.S., Clarke, J.A., Cullen, K., Bielecky, A., Severin, C., Bigelow, P.L., Irvin, E., Culyer, A. and Mahood, Q., 2007. The effectiveness of occupational health and safety management system interventions: a systematic review. Safety Science, 45(3), pp.329-353.

Santamaria, A.B., Cushing, C.A., Antonini, J.M., Finley, B.L. and Mowat, F.S., 2007. State-of-the-science review: does manganese exposure during welding pose a neurological risk?. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 10(6), pp.417-465.

Saunders, M. N., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2009) Research methods for business students, Page 52, 5th ed. Harlow: Prentice Hall

Steel, J. (2008). Health Hazards in the Welding and Cutting of Paint-Primed Steel. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 7(4), p.173.

Stern, R. (2009). Health hazards and biological effects of welding fumes and gases. 3rd ed. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica.

Sugden, R. (2006). Sampling techniques. 2nd ed. London: University of London External Publications.

 

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