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Academic Work of High Standard

Question:

1. Develop excellent skills of Research, Critical Analysis and Written Academic Work of high standard.

2. Navigate through the website or internet or books, journals or websites.

3. Cite appropriate references where applicable.

4. Provide evidence of appropriate research.

Answer:

A manager of organization can be defined as having the responsibilities of motivating and supervising the activities of the employees and directing the employees as per the standard set of the organization. The study is based on a case study of Duke and there it has been found that the organization is extremely employee centric. The mission of the institution is to provide advance education, research and patient care to the customers [5]. The study will demonstrate the importance of manager in an organization. According to the case study, the report will analyse the responsibility of Duke in handling the mentioned situation. The study will also discuss justify whether the activities done by the institution is enough for proper management or not. 

Importance of Manager in organization

A manager in an organization is defined as a person who is responsible for administering and controlling the activities of the organization. According to researcher, a manger is supposed to have all the skills in managing the resources of the organization properly [2]. On the other hand, it has been opined that the manager of the organization is also responsible for directing and supporting the activities of the employees work under him [7]. The importance of a manger can be defined as the followings:

Hiring effective people

The importance of a manger can be reflected in hiring right people for the organization at right time. Mangers have all the skills to judge a candidate for the suitability of that candidate in a specific jib role. Hiring right people brings the success of the organization, as the activities of the organization are ultimately done by the employees[3]. In this area, a manager of the organization is important through sourcing, screening and selecting right employees for right place. 

Performance Management

Performance management is a broad area in the organization that is impossible without the existence of a manager. After hiring the people, the manager sets the goals of the employees according to the goal set by the organization. According to the researchers, the manager clarifies and set the expectation of organization form each individual employee and thus, helps the employees in making their job role clear [6]. The manager also regularly monitors the performance of the employees and provide training if any deviation found in the job process. On the other hand, it has been argued that through addressing the weakness of the employees, manager of the organization assists the employee by providing training that enhances the skills and knowledge of the employees [13]. 

Set overall Direction

Manger of organization is significant for setting the strategic goals for the organization. The success of the organization is completely dependent on setting clear and unambiguous goals so that it is clear to all the employees. According to the authors, the manager of organization applies their shrewdness in setting the vision, mission and objectives of the organization [9]. Strategic mangers of the organization take lots of times in setting short term and long term goal and prioritising them according the need of the organizational success. On the other hand, it has been opined that the mangers also direct the employees according to the set goal of the organization [10]. Therefore, the success of organization depends on the effectiveness of the manger in setting the organizational vision. 

Managing resources

According to researchers, the mangers of organization ensure that the employees have all the resources with them for properly do the works in meeting the goals of the organization [12]. The mangers are responsible for looking over right utilisation of the resources in right way for organizational effectiveness. With this kind of monitoring the manager ensures that the important resources of the organization are not over spend by the employees. On the other hand, it has been argued that the importance of the manger in any organization is thus reflected in reducing the wastage of important resources so that organizational efficiency is maintained [15].

Communicate Information

According to the authors, a manager is extremely important for the organization by disseminating important information with the employees [16]. Communication gap may lead to misunderstanding among the employees and may destroy the motives of the organization. In this case, the managers of organization ensure that important information is communicated all along within the organization. On the other hand, the researchers mentioned that the manager also ensures that information of the organization is not bottlenecked in its highway for ensuring that every employee can be aware of the true intension of the organization and thus, can they become more involved in the organizational success [8]. 

Responsibility of Manager in Duke

According to the authors, manager is the coordinator between the employees and management of the organization [4]. The manager has to look after all the crucial matter of the organization and accordingly control if any issues arise in the workplace. On the other hand, it has been opined that making a productive work environment, it is firstly required to make a supportive work environment [14]. Therefore, it is the responsibility of managers to coordinate all the employees and making encouraging them for making a supporting work environment towards more productivity of the organization. In this case study, Duke has the mission of education, research and patient care now and in near future. There is obviously a major role of manager in creating supporting work environment so that the organization can contribute better to the customers by meeting their requirement. The responsibility of manager is Duke for creating a supportive work environment is described below:

Setting clear goal

The employees of Duke will find it easier to do their respective job, when they will find that their job role is clear. According to the authors, the professors of Duke should be properly aware of the teaching criteria so that they can provide quality education to the student as per the standard of the organization [11]. When the teaching criteria of the education will be clear and transparent to the professor then they will provide quality education to the students. On the other hand, it has been opined that in case of patient care, the manager should make clear policy and regulations that the patient carer should follow [1]. Transparent policy of the health care will encourage the employees towards better productivity as it shows accountability of the organization. 

Supporting the employees

According to researchers, the manager of Duke should be concerned about the fact that the employees are getting proper guideline to follow according to the set standard of the organization [6]. In order take care of the patient, the manger should ensure that the patient carers are provided with all the equipment necessary for treatment of the patients. On the other hand, it has been argued that the manager of the organization should be very much concerned about the providing regular training to the professional of the organization so that they can efficiently complete their job role [2]. The manager should provide quality training to the patient carers about the new and advance technology used in the treatment of the patients so that they can better handle the new equipment and treat the patient effectively. 

Listening to the ideas of employees

According to the authors, the employees of the organization feel valued when they get the scope of sharing their views towards the organizational success [3]. In case of Duke, the manger should encourage the employees by valuing them in the organization through taking their views in the organizational operation. On the other hand, it has been pointed out that a collaborative working relationship in the workplace increases the productivity and efficiency of the employees, as they feel relaxed in such kind of working environment [10]. Likewise, in case of Duke, the manager should listen to the problems of the employees regarding their job and then solve the problem accordingly instead of making any rigid rule for the employees. 

Team Development

According to authors, a supportive work environment can be created through developing a collaborative team [16]. In order to make a supportive and productive work environment in Duke, the manager should be concerned about team development management rather beside individual development management. On the other hand, the authors pointed out that the stress of the employees can be minimized, if the task of the employees is shared equally among team members of the organization [11]. In this way, the organization would be able to increase the productivity of the employees through showing their innovation, as they will get a flexible working culture within the organization. 

Role of Manger of Duke towards proper management

Justification of proper management

From the case study, it has been found that Duke is completely employee centric organization and they spend 60% of their budget for the well-being of the employees [5]. This situation simply denotes that Duke mostly concerned with the employees rather than their profit. The manager of Duke is doing almost everything that is needed to properly manage the employees of the organization and accordingly bring increased productivity in the organization. According to the researchers, in order to provide excellent education to the students, the managers Duke hire best professors to their organization providing standard education to their students [1]. On the other hand, the researchers pointed out that the employees of Duke get assistance from the managers in a greater extent that help the professors as well as patient carers to work according to the standard set of the organization [3]. According to the researchers, the manager of Duke provides rewards and recognition to the employees on accomplishment of their job role properly [14]. This activity of the manager motivates the employees towards higher productivity. On the other hand, important information regarding the policy of new educational criteria and patient care are equally shared among the employees that motivate the employees to efficiently complete the task, as they feel valued in the organization through shared information. 

Some responsibilities that are missing in the manager of Duke that is described below:

Missing Responsibilities

Allowing employees in decision making

It has been found that the managers of Duke are providing enough support to the employees so that they can work according to the standard set of the organization. However, the managers are not allowing the employees in decision-making process of the organization and they may feel unvalued in this regards [10]. The organization also is not capable of brining innovation, as the creative thinking of the employees is not taken into consideration. 

Proper Training

Among the responsibilities of the manager at Duke, it has been found that the managers of the organization is not providing adequate training to the employees who are responsible for providing education and patient care. According to researchers, inability of the manager in providing adequate training may limit the skill set of the employees towards providing high level of productivity [8]. On the other hand, it has been opined that the quality of the service might also deteriorate due to not providing right training to the employees [13]. 

 Conflict handler

It can be found that the managers of Duke provide enough justification about any departmental and institutional change to the employees. However, the manager is not acting as conflict handler of the organization. According to opined that, inability of the managers in handling conflict may lead to clash among the employees [3]. On the other hand, it has been opined that this incapability of the manager may lead to disagreement of the employees with the management and thus, may reduce the productivity of the employees [7]. 

Conclusion

While concluding the study, it can be said that the managers are very important for organization in directing and controlling the activities of the organization. The manager is also responsible for hiring right employee, performance management and communicating important information with the employees. As per the case study, Duke has the mission of providing advance education, research and patient treatment to the customers. For this the organization is trying to make a supportive work environment in the organization. The responsibility of the manager in Duke can be seen in clearly setting the goals of the employees so that they can work as per the standard of the organization. On the other hand, the managers of Duke should also support the employees by providing guidelines to the employees in every aspect of their job role. It has been found that manager of Duke is doing almost everything that is required for properly managing the employees. However, some responsibilities are missing in the job role of the manager in terms of allowing employees in decision-making and conflict handling.  

Reference List

1. Agnihotri, R. and Krush, M.T., 2015. Salesperson empathy, ethical behaviors, and sales performance: the moderating role of trust in one's manager. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 35(2), pp.164-174.

2. Brouwer, C.J., 2015. The changing role of a senior manager in a new organization: An emergent process of mutual recognition.

3. Burgess, N. and Currie, G., 2013. The knowledge brokering role of the hybrid middle level manager: the case of healthcare. British Journal of Management, 24(S1), pp.S132-S142.

4. Flaherty, K., Lam, S.K., Lee, N., Mulki, J.P. and Dixon, A.L., 2012. Social network theory and the sales manager role: engineering the right relationship flows. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 32(1), pp.29-40.

5. Hr.duke.edu. 2016. Duke Human Resources: Workplace Health & Safety. [online] Available at: https://www.hr.duke.edu/managers/health-safety/index.php [Accessed 26 May 2016].

6. Huang, W.L. and Feeney, M.K., 2015. Citizen Participation in Local Government Decision Making The Role of Manager Motivation. Review of Public Personnel Administration, p.0734371X15576410.

7. Jelinek, R. and Ahearne, M., 2015. Discouraging Deviance: The Role of Sales Manager Empowerment. In Proceedings of the 2007 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference (pp. 315-315). Springer International Publishing.

8. Joo, B.K.B., Sushko, J.S. and McLean, G.N., 2012. Multiple faces of coaching: Manager-as-coach, executive coaching, and formal mentoring.Organization Development Journal, 30(1), p.19.

9. Lam, J., Fox, K., Fan, W., Moen, P., Kelly, E., Hammer, L. and Kossek, E.E., 2015. Manager characteristics and employee job insecurity around a merger announcement: The role of status and crossover. The Sociological Quarterly, 56(3), pp.558-580.

10. Mathe, K., Scott-Halsell, S. and Roseman, M., 2016. The Role of Customer Orientation in the Relationship Between Manager Communications and Customer Satisfaction. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 40(2), pp.198-209.

11. Nagy, A., 2014. The Role and Responsibility of the Environmental, Health & Safety Manager in establishing an organization’s commitment towards environmental stewardship and workplace safety [as elements of social responsibility].

12. Prudzienica, M. and Mlodzinska-Granek, A., 2014. The role of manager or leader in a non-profit organization. Актуальні проблеми економіки, (10), pp.321-328.

13. Sager, J.K., Naletelich, K. and Dubinsky, A.J., 2014. Examination of Selected Precursors and Outcomes of Sales Manager Behaviors.International Business Research, 7(9), p.91.

14. Sander, E.J. and Caza, A., 2015. 5 The role of leadership in developing the innovative manager. Handbook of Research on Managing Managers, p.87.

15. Sikora, D.M., Ferris, G.R. and Van Iddekinge, C.H., 2015. Line manager implementation perceptions as a mediator of relations between high-performance work practices and employee outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(6), p.1908.

16. Ysa, T., Esteve, M. and Longo, F., 2013. The role of public manager.Rethinking Public-Private Partnerships: Strategies for Turbulent Times, p.98.

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