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Analysis with Diffracting X-Ray through Basaltic Rocks to Differentiate


In this CDR three carrier episode have to be written and that's include my Mining Engineering final research project and Undergraduate project and one of my project during my Master degree. Kindly fulfill all the requirements as per Engineering Australia rules. In the Final project report my part is Lab work contribution (Page 32 Onwards).


CE 1.2.1:

Primary motivation comes from the experimentation over Mars Geology focusing over volcanic history and potential inhabitability analysis and presents the analysis in form of a study. The main agenda of the project was to experiment over basaltic eruption with x-ray diffraction. The apparent transition over the explosive or effusive volcanic eruption is conveyed over the volcanism sources. The sources are identified as the magma, or significant materials and basaltic eruption style. In this study, I applied the technique of x-ray diffraction that is currently available in the laboratory purpose usage only. Again, in this study, proper methodology is appointed for setting the eruption style along with crystalline nature of basalt rock.

CE 1.2.2:

Primary objective lies in quantification of the crystalline nature of the basalt rock, for evaluating the eruption style through separate diffraction patterns. The further study analyses the results along with volcanic eruption with depicting in curve patterns.

CE 1.2.3:

I covered primary role in conducting the study as a project coordinator. However, I summarized all my responsibilities in following points:

  1. I contributed the project related information from online sources as articles, dataset, and other journals.
  2. I served the role of project manager, assessor, and an overall guide for the other teammates.

CE 1.2.4:

CE 1.2.5: I collected data from online sources as articles, dataset, and different diaries. I served the part of task chief, assessor, and a general aide for alternate fellow team members. They were steady in this endeavor finishing every movement inside much time to complete it inside. The commitment was not just constrained to the level of fruition of the concentrate; rather it defines the proposals in the study too.

CE 1.3:

CE 1.3.1: Experiments on Mars and planet geology have for quite some time been centered around disclosing the planet's volcanic history and potential livability. The Sudden transition from touchy to unreserved volcanism is exceptionally compelling after some time as well as the wellsprings of volatile rocks in these prior ejections—whether inside the molten rock, or huge amounts of outside water. Distinguishing the emission manner of a Martian and volcanic store may give relevant data and information regarding the states of magma and magmatic rocks with mantle and peripheral sources, or the likelihood water presence in such rocks.

In earth surface, unstable and stable basaltic emissions happen in case of two different important and identified styles: magmatic and phreato-magmatic. Magmatic emissions (that is plinian) are thought to happen to a limited extent because of high magmatic unpredictable substance (fundamentally water and CO2), at the same time as phreato-magmatic ejections happen when volcanic emission gets in contact with ground surface water. Prior researcher endeavors to recognize above-mentioned two types of volcanic emission and identified the salient features of the pyro-clasts, for example, grain shape, vesicularity, and size. Nonetheless, the mentioned qualities can regularly cover them and can be modified easily as time passes. There are several types of volcanic eruptions, out of those categories; Plinian eruption is considered in this study. I identified the cause of such eruption, as gassy magmas generally known as ‘dacite’ and ‘rhyolite’. This eruption may cause huge pile of ashes and scoria in basalt rocks resulting in crystallinity.

CE 1.3.2:

I learnt suitable mining knowledge and idea about rock features to evaluate basalt volcanic eruption styles. I applied x-ray diffraction techniques for the same purpose. I included the JADE programming was utilized to decide the "crystalline" and "aggregate" coordinated zones of the diffracted patterns, expected to determine relative changes in crystallinity. This quality was contrasted with the known value and unit of crystallinity (presence of gabbro in % among the suitable blend) inferring an adjustment bend. Presently ready to adjust results, we utilized this method to examine basalts from differing emission styles, to correspond style with crystallinity.

CE 1.3.3:

Task delegation was quite difficult in this aspect, while the project dealt with making suitable scheduling of the study. The project was accomplished with separate activities under segmented procedure of study. The accomplishment was supported with each member’s participation in the study. I served the evaluation of their activity and reported the assessor with the current progress of the study.  

CE 1.3.4:

CE The problems were in this study as mentioning the proper process and method to evaluate the volcanic eruption styles. I took an approach to mitigate the problems. The approach includes the listing down the issues for reviewing later. The problems were:

  1. Issues in identifying the XRD utilization in proper way for the project
  2. Problems in serving the crystallinity in order to generate certain aggregate patterns from the x-ray diffraction
  • Lacking idea in Phreatomagmatic tests as per the project requirements
  1. Unrelated calculations and lacking idea about proper estimation techniques


The resultant amount of residues is broke down by XRD utilizing a Cu Kalpha X-beam source; with a 3 second abide time and 0.03 degree step size over a 10 to 50 degree 2theta territory. Phreatomagmatic tests, including a basaltic sand from the survey and fiery remains lapilli from Oregon, Newberry, capitulated genuinely in a steady and low groundmass with crystallinity values going from near about (~) 45-half. In examination, basaltic plinian tests from Mt. Etna and Tarawera volcanoes had higher groundmass crystallinities, going from roughly near about (~) 60-85% crystalline. Tests from other eruptive styles, for example, Strombolian and magma fountain created middle crystallinity values between these two end members. In all cases, clast size significantly affected crystallinity, with bigger clasts yielding higher groundmass crystallinities. Since it is unreasonable (if not inconceivable) for a Mars meanderer to pick groundmass from an example, we additionally broke down entire rock renditions of every specimen to keep up a simple to the present and future wanderers' constrained capacities. Phenocrysts in the entire rock tests changed the crystallinity by just a couple percent, and the general crystallinity difference brought on by various groundmass surfaces stayed obvious.

CE 1.3.5:

A material like basalt, with blended crystalline and formless substance, makes a diffraction design with individual high power, sharp crests (created by crystalline material) superimposed on one low, expansive crest (speaking to the nebulous segment). With a direct foundation connected to dispose of overabundance foundation clamor, the coordinated territory of the example speaks to the aggregate crystalline in addition to undefined material. Including a curvilinear foundation that takes after the wide nebulous top shape, the incorporated region over the foundation then speaks to the tops of the crystalline material alone. Partitioning the "crystalline" region by the "aggregate" region gives a relative crystallinity assessment to the example.

To decide outright crystallinity for tests, an alignment bend must be developed to represent mistakes brought on by potential covering tops and the nearness of foundation clamor in the investigation. This study reproduced proper technique for rhyolites, making an alignment bend particularly for basaltic rocks. Residue blends within crystalline gabbro in differing extents with 100% indistinct glass, reproducing basaltic rocks of fluctuating crystallinity.

Figure: Calibration curve for “real” and synthetic crystalline gabbro mixtures with amorphous glass

CE 1.3.6: I included the project timeline as in the Gantt chart for incorporating timely response to each activity for the project supervisor. I managed the project works with sequencing them as in flow of work and as far as the project commences, the process helped us in a better manner. I was satisfied to work in this team, as I got immense support from the fellow team members when I required the most. The cooperation was entirely professional and prompt as per the served deliverables of the project.

CE 1.4:

CE 1.4.1: We recommend that confirmation of emission style might be protected within groundmass crystallization for volcanic eruption. Happening within differing crytsallinity amount amongst basalts (and even inside single pyroclast), ground mass crystallization frequently demonstrates a solid connection to post-eruption cooling rate. Cushion magmas, for instance, with their smooth skins and crystalline inside, give prove that at first shiny groundmass, saved on the outside by means of fast extinguishing, keeps on solidifying in the slower-cooling inside. Earlier investigations of basaltic pumice clasts uncover expanding groundmass crystallinity from outside to inside, proposing that crystallization proceeds inside the groundmass after individual clasts are shot out. We promote explore whether change in crystallinity might be associated with various cooling rates between ejection styles, centering specifically on the fast water-extinguishing of phreatomagmatic emissions versus the slower air-cooling of magmatic emissions.

CE 1.4.2: I contributed the project related information from online sources as articles, dataset, and other journals. I served the role of project manager, assessor, and an overall guide for the other teammates. They were supportive in this venture completing each activity within much time to finish it within. The contribution was not only limited to the level of completion of the study, rather it depicts the recommendations in the study as well.

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